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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 363-375

Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Sankara Nethralaya, 18, College Road, Chennai - 600 006, India

Correspondence Address:
Jyotirmay Biswas
Medical and Vision Research Foundations, Sankara Nethralaya, 18, College Road, Chennai - 600 006, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.42412

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Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.

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