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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 377-383

Posterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Banker's Retina Clinic and Laser Centre, 5 Subhash Society, Behind Ishvar Bhuvan, Ahmedabad 380 009, India

Correspondence Address:
Alay S Banker
Banker's Retina Clinic and Laser Centre, 5 Subhash Society, Behind Ishvar Bhuvan, Ahmedabad -380 009
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.42413

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Ocular manifestations can occur in up to 50% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and posterior segment involvement is the most common presentation. The posterior segment manifestations of AIDS can be divided into four categories: retinal vasculopathy, opportunistic infections, unusual malignancies and neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities. Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis are the most common manifestations, even in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has been shown to cause regression of CMV retinitis, reduce the incidence of CMV-related retinal detachments, and prolong patient survival. Immune recovery uveitis is a new cause of vision loss in patients on HAART. Diagnosis and treatment are guided by the particular conditions and immune status of the patient.

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