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   Table of Contents      
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 273-279

Review of epidemiological features, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis: Experience of over a decade

1 Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Prof. Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
2 Cornea Services, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India

Date of Submission10-Sep-2007
Date of Acceptance17-Nov-2008
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2009

Correspondence Address:
Savitri Sharma
L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, L.V. Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500 034
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0301-4738.53051

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Purpose : To review the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome of patients with suspected microbial keratitis.
Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis of a non-comparative series from the database was done. All the patients presenting with corneal stromal infiltrate underwent standard microbiologic evaluation of their corneal scrapings, and smear and culture-guided antimicrobial therapy.
Results : Out of 5897 suspected cases of microbial keratitis 3563 (60.4%) were culture-proven (bacterial - 1849, 51.9%; fungal - 1360, 38.2%; Acanthamoeba - 86, 2.4%; mixed - 268, 7.5%). Patients with agriculture-based activities were at 1.33 times (CI 1.16-1.51) greater risk of developing microbial keratitis and patients with ocular trauma were 5.33 times (CI 6.41-6.44) more likely to develop microbial keratitis. Potassium hydroxide with calcofluor white was most sensitive for detecting fungi (90.6%) and Acanthamoeba (84.0%) in corneal scrapings, however, Gram stain had a low sensitivity of 56.6% in detection of bacteria. Majority of the bacterial infections were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (42.3%) and Fusarium species (36.6%) was the leading cause of fungal infections. A significantly larger number of patients (691/1360, 50.8%) with fungal keratitis required surgical intervention compared to bacterial (799/1849, 43.2%) and Acanthamoeba (15/86, 17.4%) keratitis. Corneal healed scar was achieved in 75.5%, 64.8%, and 90.0% of patients with bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba keratitis respectively. Conclusions : While diagnostic and treatment modalities are well in place the final outcome is suboptimal in fungal keratitis. With more effective treatment available for bacterial and Acanthamoeba keratitis, the treatment of fungal keratitis is truly a challenge.

Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiology, infective keratitis, outcome, treatment

How to cite this article:
Gopinathan U, Sharma S, Garg P, Rao GN. Review of epidemiological features, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis: Experience of over a decade. Indian J Ophthalmol 2009;57:273-9

How to cite this URL:
Gopinathan U, Sharma S, Garg P, Rao GN. Review of epidemiological features, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis: Experience of over a decade. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2023 Mar 31];57:273-9. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/ijo/pages/default.aspx/text.asp?2009/57/4/273/53051

There are several reports in literature, from different continents of the world, describing the prevalence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens in ulcerated corneas. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] With the exception of a few population-based studies, [7],[8] the majority of these reports, such as those from south Florida, [1] Nepal, [2] Bangladesh, [3] Ghana, [4] and India, [5],[6] have primarily evaluated predisposing factors and causative agents of microbial keratitis in patients seen in the hospital. The number of patients in these studies has been less than 500 seen over a period of less than two years. Similarly, several publications on the management and treatment outcomes from various parts of the world are confined to certain groups of organisms in a limited number of patients with microbial keratitis.

In order to determine the impact of various epidemiological patterns, diagnostic methods and treatment strategies on the outcome of infective keratitis, results from studies employing standard procedures over a considerable period of time in a large number of patients would be most informative. At the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, every patient who reports to the cornea clinic with a stromal infiltrate in the cornea undergoes a standard protocol of clinical evaluation, diagnostic investigation, and therapeutic regimen, and all clinical and microbiological data is collected systematically.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate data pertaining to 5897 cases of presumed microbial keratitis investigated at this hospital over a period of 10 years and five months. We determined the factors predisposing to bacterial, fungal, Acanthamoeba and mixed infections, identified the causative agents prevalent, and analyzed the treatment outcome in patients with microbial keratitis.

  Materials and Methods Top

A search of the computerized corneal ulcer database showed that 5897 clinically suspected cases of infectious keratitis had undergone microbiological investigation at this referral eye care center between February 1991 and June 2001. All these cases were defined clinically as 'corneal ulcers', following observation of an epithelial defect overlying a stromal infiltrate as seen on slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination. Among the 5897 cases, the medical and the microbiology data of 3563 culture-proven cases of bacterial, fungal, Acanthamoeba , and mixed keratitis were reviewed to study the demographic features, possible predisposing factors, duration of symptoms, prior therapy received, seasonal variation and laboratory results. Treatment outcome was analyzed in all patients except those with mixed infections and patients lost to follow-up.

At presentation to the cornea services of this institute, information pertaining to demographic features, duration of symptoms, risk factors and occupational status was documented for every suspected case of infectious keratitis according to a detailed protocol. Cornea evaluation was carried out by a cornea specialist using a slit-lamp biomicroscope and findings were recorded in a predesigned format. Detailed diagrammatic documentation of the ulcer was done and recorded on a daily basis. Treatment regimen, response to treatment and final outcome were recorded in all cases.

Following clinical examination, patients were subjected to microbiological investigations as per the institutional protocol described earlier. [9],[10]

The bacterial and fungal isolates were identified up to the species level using standard microbiological procedures. [11] The smear and culture results were recorded in the predesigned format along with clinical details and captured in the corneal ulcer database which is maintained systematically. All analysis projected in this study is derived from this database.

The standard protocol used for the treatment of our patients is described in detail in an earlier publication which reported microbial keratitis in an elderly population seen at this institute from February 1991 until June 1995. [10] The treatment protocol has remained unchanged since then for bacterial and fungal keratitis, however, we have adopted combined therapy with polyhexamethylene biguanide (0.02%) and chlorhexidine (0.02%) for Acanthamoeba keratitis since August 1996. [12] Surgical mode of treatment included tissue adhesive application with bandage contact lens, penetrating keratoplasty, evisceration, whenever applicable. Treatment outcome at the end of three months or at the completion of treatment (whichever was earlier) was considered for analysis.

Statistical analysis

Student's t test was applied to compare the mean values of demographic factors such as age. The chi square test was used for comparison of proportions. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to assess the relative risk of patients with trauma and agriculture-related occupation developing microbial keratitis.

  Results Top

Of the 5897 clinically suspected cases of infectious keratitis, 4087 (69.3%) were males and 1810 (30.7%) were females, the overall male to female ratio of patients being 2.25:1. Laboratory evidence of microbial infection was established in 3563 (60.4%) of 5897 cases whose corneal scrapings were subjected for smears and culture. The mean (± standard deviation) age was 41.20 (± 20.36) years in patients with bacterial keratitis (1849, 51.9%), 30.90 (± 15.28) years in patients with fungal keratitis (1360, 38.2%), and 34.45 (± 12.54) years in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (86, 2.4%), indicating a relatively increased occurrence of corneal infections (irrespective of the etiological agent) in the middle age group. The seasonal variation in the occurrence of all (including mixed) bacterial, fungal and Acanthamoeba keratitis is as depicted in [Figure 1].

Unilateral ulcer cases included 1789 right eyes and 1737 left eyes. Thirty-seven patients had bilateral infection accounting for 3600 affected eyes. Since both eyes of patients with bilateral infection revealed identical organisms, the occupational status, possible risk factors, duration of symptoms, prior medication, and laboratory parameters were analyzed taking into account 3563 patients and not eyes.

The occupations of patients [Table 1] were classified as outdoor (agriculture and manual labor), and indoor (desk job and household). More number of patients with fungal, Acanthamoeba (pure cultures) and polymicrobial keratitis (bacteria and fungus; bacteria and parasite) were found to be involved in agriculture-related activities ( P < 0.001) as compared to other occupations; this feature was not evident in patients with pure bacterial keratitis and in cases where fungus and Acanthamoeba coexisted. Odds ratio (OR) revealed that patients involved in agriculture-based activities were 1.33 times (CI 1.16-1.51) at a greater risk of developing microbial keratitis.

The potential predisposing ocular factors identified in patients are shown in [Table 2]. Between the three etiological groups (pure cultures), the association of trauma was more pronounced for fungal and parasitic keratitis as compared to bacterial ( P < 0.001). Overall, patients with ocular trauma were 5.33 times (CI 6.41-6.44) at a greater risk of developing microbial keratitis.

Patients with outdoor occupation had higher prevalence of keratitis due to trauma as compared to the patients engaged indoors. This observation was significant for bacterial ( P < 0.001), fungal ( P < 0.001) and Acanthamoeba ( P = 0.02) keratitis when all culture-positive trauma and non-trauma cases were considered. In keratitis of pure or polymicrobial origin, physical agents were the most frequent sources of corneal injury than the other two ( P < 0.001) as depicted in [Figure 2]. Among the systemic factors documented in 296 patients, diabetes mellitus was more frequently noted in keratitis of both pure and polymicrobial etiology, accounting for 69.2% (205/296) cases.

Among the 3563 patients, 1945 (54.6%) were treated with antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids topically elsewhere, prior to their presentation to our cornea services [Table 3]. When retrospectively analyzed it was observed that in 945 (48.6%) patients the antimicrobial agents received were partly or completely in agreement with the type of the microbial agent (bacterial or fungal) causing the infection as proven by culture. Most patients, however, had received the medications in less than optimum dosage.

Overall, greater number of patients had sought medical help at our institute with duration of symptoms less than one month (2977) than those with symptoms longer than one month (405) as shown in [Figure 3] ( P < 0.001). One thousand two hundred and fifty-two (0.06%) of 2977 patients had visited the institute within one week of onset of symptoms. On the whole, lower socioeconomic group patients (non-paying) consisted of a greater segment of the patients with microbial keratitis (3255/5897, 55.1%) as well as with positive cultures (2050/3563, 57.5%).

Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings detected microbes in 2884 (80.9%) of 3563 culture-positive cases. Overall, culture was positive for bacteria in 2115 (59.3%), for fungi in 1598 (44.8%) and Acanthamoeba in 118 (3.3%) of all cases (pure and polymicrobial cases). The smears revealed bacteria in 62.5% (1325/2115), fungi in 94.6% (1511/1598) and Acanthamoeba in 85.6% (101/118) of the cases. The sensitivity and specificity of each of the staining techniques employed in the detection of bacteria, fungi and Acanthamoeba are given in [Table 4]. On analysis of matching smear and culture results, Gram stain was accurate in only 45.7% of the corneal scrapings from 2115 patients with bacterial keratitis (pure and mixed). Among the 2334 culture-negative cases, smears were positive for microorganisms in 739 (31.7%) cases revealing bacteria in 417 (17.9%), fungus in 298 (12.8%), Acanthamoeba in 19 (0.8%) and both bacteria and fungus in five (0.2%) eyes. These cases being culture-negative were not analyzed in this study.

Of 3563 cases of microbial keratitis, 3295 (92.5%) revealed pure growth of either bacteria (1849, 51.9%), fungi (1360, 38.2%) or Acanthamoeba (86, 2.4%). Polymicrobial infection was seen in 268 (7.5%) cases. Of the 37 cases that presented with bilateral infection, 34 cases demonstrated pure bacterial growth, two had pure fungal growth, and one had mixed infection of both bacteria and fungus, both eyes of each of these patients revealing similar organisms.

More than one bacterium (two or more) was isolated from 350 cases resulting in 2511 bacterial isolates. Among the bacterial isolates, 2062 (82.1%) were gram-positive and 449 (17.9%) were gram-negative. The different bacterial and fungal species isolated are listed in [Table 5] and [Table 6] respectively. Propionebacterium (19, 0.8%) and Peptostreptococcus (seven, 0.3%) species were the only anaerobes recovered in this series. The antibiotic susceptibility data of the bacterial isolates is beyond the scope of this study and is published elsewhere. [13,14] Overall, 1648 fungal isolates were recovered from culture of corneal scrapings (50 patients had more than one isolate). Of these, 1635 (99.2%) were molds and 13 (0.8%) were yeasts.

All patients were started on medical therapy initially, however, 46.6% of the patients required surgical intervention as shown in [Table 7]. Overall treatment outcome in bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba keratitis patients is shown in [Table 8]. Significantly more number of patients required surgical treatment in fungal keratitis compared to bacterial and Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  Discussion Top

A variety of factors determine clinical outcome in microbial keratitis and the epidemiological patterns vary from one country to the other and in different geographical areas in the same country. A comprehensive data is important to develop appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This study reports the experience with 3563 culture-positive non-viral microbial keratitis patients based in southern India. The data reported here is expected to be useful in all areas of the world where fungal keratitis is relatively more prevalent and is commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of microbial keratitis.

The male preponderance in this series was observed not only in the overall clinically suspected cases of microbial keratitis but also in culture-proven cases of microbial keratitis (male:female:2.25:1, 2.24:1 respectively). Though both sexes develop corneal ulcers more commonly in the middle decades of life, a significant male preponderance has been reported by most previous studies [5],[15] including those in children [2],[16] and elderly patients. [2],[11] Considering the predominant predisposing factor of trauma in all types of microbial keratitis (bacterial - 46.6%, fungal - 81.9%, Acanthamoeba - 95.5%) the probable reason for male preponderance is obvious. Ocular trauma was significantly more associated with outdoor occupation in this series.

More than half of the patients with culture-proven microbial keratitis (54.6%) had visited a physician prior to presentation at this institute and nearly half (48.6%, [Table 3]) of them had received antimicrobial agents that were appropriate, albeit on lower dosage, for the microbial agent involved. Therefore, we believe that despite the patient being on prior antimicrobial therapy, microbiological investigation may succeed in establishing etiological diagnosis in at least 50% of the patients. Traditional medicine or home remedy was used by only 0.4% of our patients compared to 37.3% of the patients in the study from Madurai. [5] The urban location of our institute in contrast to the semi-urban location of the institute at Madurai may account for this difference. While use of plant extracts has been reported from rural Malawi, Africa by Courtright et al . [17] , it is fortunately not common in areas undergoing urbanization.

It is interesting to note that a majority of our patients presented within one month of onset of symptoms, 42% of whom came within one week. This indicates easy availability of transport to patients and is in contrast to the situation in other developing countries such as Nepal [2] where 19.3% of the patients took longer than one month to reach the hospital for treatment. Transport facilities and access to healthcare systems are important issues in the developing countries and our analysis points at optimum availability in the area catered by this institute.

Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings provides rapid diagnosis and forms the basis for instituting initial antimicrobial therapy which may be modified later according to culture reports. [18] An accurate smear diagnosis therefore becomes important in achieving optimum treatment outcome. The detection of fungi and Acanthamoeba was much higher in the smears than it was for bacteria [Table 4]. The detection rate for bacteria (Gram stain) was reduced by 10.9% when a correlation of the presence of similar bacteria in smears and cultures was made. We recently analyzed the utility of Gram stain in the diagnosis of early and advanced bacterial keratitis wherein the sensitivity was found to be 36.0% and 40.0% respectively. [19] The low sensitivity was attributed by us to the use of antibiotics prior to presentation at this institute by nearly 50% of the patients. The sensitivity of Gram stain in the diagnosis of bacterial keratitis, as reported by other authors (Asbell et al. [20] - 67%, Dunlop et al. [21] - 62%), is close to the overall sensitivity noted in this study (56.6%) which dropped on correlation of presence of similar bacteria in smears and cultures (45.7%).

Microorganisms were isolated in 60.4% of the 5897 cases of presumed microbial keratitis. This figure is close to many other reports [4,5] but is lower than the reports from Nepal [2] (80%) and from Bangladesh (81.7%). [21] The protocol of culture techniques followed in this study and the procedure of sample inoculation directly in the clinic leaves virtually no scope for role of laboratory-related reasons for low yield in culture. Patient-related causes such as prior antimicrobial therapy probably have a significant role to play, as has been suggested by Srinivasan et al . [5]

A majority of our patients (3295/3563, 92.5%) had corneal infection by a single agent, the most common being bacterial (1849/3563, 51.9%). Bacterial keratitides were predominantly caused by gram-positive bacteria. However, unlike other studies from Asia [2],[5] and Africa [22] where infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae were most common; in our study, Staphylococcus epidermidis -related bacterial keratitis predominated. A review of literature showed that most of the studies from developed countries such as the USA [1],[15],[20] (except southern USA) and Australia [23] listed S. epidermidis or coagulase-negative staphylococci as the leading cause of bacterial keratitis. It is not clear whether the tendency to consider S. epidermidis or coagulase-negative staphylococci as a normal commensal of the conjunctiva may have led to underreporting in some of the studies. Nevertheless, the criteria to determine the significance of a positive culture from corneal scrapings appeared similar across most of these studies. Considering the fact that S. epidermidis forms the commonest commensal of the extraocular surfaces, it is highly probable that these organisms invade corneal tissues when compromised by antimicrobial and/ or corticosteroid therapy or trauma. The higher incidence of S. pneumoniae keratitis in Madurai compared to this series remains inexplicable since both these studies are from southern India. The strong association of chronic dacryocystitis with S. penumoniea -related microbial keratitis is well known [24] but the database in this study was not adequate to determine the frequency of concomitant sac pathology in our patients. It is possible that a larger number of patients with dacryocystitis were present in studies with predominant S. pneumoniae infection.

A high prevalence of fungal keratitis caused by filamentous fungi in warmer climates has been widely reported. [1],[4],[25] All cases (pure and polymicrobial) were considered together in this series; fungi were isolated in 1598 (44.8%) patients, a frequency similar to that reported from Madurai. [5] Some of the fungal isolates could not be definitely identified due to lack of characteristic spores [Table 6] in the medium used at our center for culturing fungus (Sabouraud dextrose agar, potato dextrose agar). Difficulty in speciation of fungi owing to lack of sporulation has been faced by other investigators as well. [1] Attempts were not made in this study to use spore-enhancing media for fungal isolates on a routine basis, which probably would have helped in speciation of some of the unidentified isolates.

The overall incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis (3.3%) was low in this study although the number of affected patients was large (118). Only one patient had worn contact lenses (0.8%). In contrast to the literature from developed countries, where contact lens wear emerges as a great risk factor for developing infectious keratitis, [26],[27] it accounted for only 42 out of 3563 (1.2%) cases in this series of which the majority (36/42, 85.7%) were bacterial. No patient among a series of 33 cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, recently reported from south India, had worn contact lenses. [28] Concomitant infection with bacteria (0.8%) and fungi (0.1%) was quite rare in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis. Diagnosis based on initial smear examination of corneal scraping was most rewarding in calcofluor white stained smears by fluorescence microscopy.

A significantly larger number of patients (691/1360, 50.8%) with fungal keratitis required surgical intervention compared to bacterial (799/1849, 43.2%) and Acanthamoeba (15/86, 17.4%) keratitis thus indicating a poor response to treatment in fungal keratitis compared to bacterial and Acanthamoeba keratitis ( P < 0.05). This study shows that although bacterial and Acanthamoeba keratitis can be treated effectively, the treatment of fungal keratitis remains a challenge.

  Acknowledgement Top

The authors acknowledge the help of Ms. Rishita Nutheti for the statistical analysis of the data.

  References Top

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Upadhyay MP, Karmacharya PC, Koirala S, Tuladhar N, Bryan LE, Smolin G et al . Epidemiologic characteristics, predisposing factors, and etiologic diagnosis of corneal ulceration in Nepal. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111:92-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
Katz NN, Wadud SA, Ayazuddin M. Corneal ulcer disease in Bangladesh. Ann Ophthalmol 1983;15:834-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Hagan M, Wright E, Newman M, Dolin P, Johnson G. Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:1024-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
Srinivasan M, Gonzales CA, George C, Cevallos V. Epidemiology and aetiological diagnosis of corneal ulceration in Madurai, south India. Br J Ophthalmol 1997;81:965-71.  Back to cited text no. 5
Bharathi MJ, Ramakrishna R, Vasu S, Meenakshi, Palaniappan R. Aetiological diagnosis of microbial keratitis in south India - A study of 1618 cases. Ind J Med Microbiol 2002;20:19-24.  Back to cited text no. 6
Gonzales CA, Srinivasan M, Whitcher JP, Smolin G. Incidence of corneal ulceration in Madurai District, south India. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 1996;3:159-66.  Back to cited text no. 7
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Jones DB, Liesgang TJ, Robinson NM. Cumitech 13. Laboratory diagnosis of ocular infections. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1981.  Back to cited text no. 9
Kunimoto DY, Sharma S, Garg P, Gopinathan U, Miller D, Rao GN. Corneal ulceration in the elderly in Hyderabad, south India. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:54-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
Balows A, Hausler WJ, Herman KL, Isenberg HD, Shadomy HJ (ed) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6 th edn. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1991.  Back to cited text no. 11
Sharma S, Garg P, Rao GN. Patient characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;84:1103-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. Trends in Antibiotic Resistance of Corneal Pathogens: Part I. An Analysis of Commonly Used Ocular Antibiotics. Indian J Ophthalmol, 1999; 47:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 13
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Rao TN, Garg P, Rao GN. Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part II. An analysis of leading bacterial keratitis isolates. Indian J Ophthalmol 1999; 47:101-109.  Back to cited text no. 14
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Ormerod LD, Hertzmark E, Gomez DS, Stabiner RG, Schanzlin DJ, Smith RE. Epidemiology of microbial keratitis in southern California. A multivariate analysis. Ophthalmology 1987;94:1322-33.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kunimoto DY, Sharma S, Reddy MK, Gopinathan U, Jyothi J, Miller D et al . Microbial keratitis in children. Ophthalmology 1998;105:252-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
Courtright P. Lewallen S, Kanjaloti S, Dighton D. Traditional eye medicine use among patients with corneal disease in rural Malawi. Br J Ophthalmol 1994;78:810-2.  Back to cited text no. 17
Sharma S, Athamanathan S. Diagnostic procedures in infectious keratitis. Chapter 17. In: Diagnostic procedures in ophthalmology, eds. Nema HV, Nema N, Jaypee brothers medical publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2002, page:232-53.  Back to cited text no. 18
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Gopinathan U, Athmanathan S, Garg P, Rao GN. Evaluation of corneal scraping smear examination methods in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal keratitis: A survey of eight years of laboratory experience. Cornea 2002;21:643-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
Asbell P, Stenson S. Ulcerative keratitis: Survery of 30 years' laboratory experience. Arch Ophthalmol 1982;100:77-80.  Back to cited text no. 20
Dunlop AA, Wright ED, Howlader SA, Nazrul I, Husain R, McClellan K et al . Suppurative corneal ulceration in Bangladesh: a0 study of 142 cases examining the microbiological diagnosis, clinical, and epidemiological features of bacterial and fungal keratitis. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol 1994;22:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 21
Carmichael TR, Wolpert M, Koornhob HJ. Corneal ulceration at an urban African hospital. Br J Ophthalmol 1985;69:920-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
McClellan KA, Bernard PJ, Billson FA. Microbial investigation in keratitis at the Sydney eye hospital. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol 1989;17:413-16.  Back to cited text no. 23
Aasuri MK, Reddy M, Sharma S, Rao GN. Co-occurrence of penumococcal keratitis and dacryocystitis. Cornea 1999;18:273-76.  Back to cited text no. 24
Thomas PA. Mycotic keratitis - an underestimated mycosis. J Med Vet Mycology 1994;32:235-56.  Back to cited text no. 25
Cohen EJ, Fulton JC, Hoffman CJ, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR. Trends in contact lens associated ulcers. Cornea 1996;15:566-70.  Back to cited text no. 26
Wilhelmus KR. Review of clinical experience with microbial keratitis associated with contact lens. The CLAO J 1987;13:211-14.  Back to cited text no. 27
Bharathi JM, Srinivasan M, Ramakrishnan R, Meenakshi R, Padmavathy S, Lalitha PN. A study of the spectrum of Acanthamoeba keratitis: A three year study at a tertiary care referral center in South India. Indian J Ophthalmol2007;55:37-42.  Back to cited text no. 28
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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]

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[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ocular infection at a tertiary referral hospital in the South of Italy
Francesco D’Oria, Rosa Buonamassa, Tiziana Rizzo, Francesco Boscia, Giovanni Alessio, Silvana Guerriero
European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; : 1120672122
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15 Assessment of genotypes, endosymbionts and clinical characteristics of Acanthamoeba recovered from ocular infection
Binod Rayamajhee, Savitri Sharma, Mark Willcox, Fiona L. Henriquez, Raksheeth Nathan Rajagopal, Gauri Shankar Shrestha, Dinesh Subedi, Bhupesh Bagga, Nicole Carnt
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2022; 22(1)
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16 Outcomes of amoebic, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: A retrospective cohort study
Caitlin A. Moe, Prajna Lalitha, N. Venkatesh Prajna, Jeena Mascarenhas, Muthiah Srinivasan, Manoranhan Das, Arun Panigrahi, Revathi Rajaraman, Gerami D. Seitzman, Catherine E. Oldenburg, Thomas M. Lietman, Jeremy D. Keenan, Michael Mimouni
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(2): e0264021
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17 Fungal Keratitis: Diagnostic Characteristics of the Potassium Hydroxide Preparation With Calcofluor White in Northern California
Colin Bacorn, Kieu-Yen Luu, Jennifer Y. Li
Cornea. 2022; 41(3): 347
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Enterobacter cloacae Keratitis: Clinicomicrobiological Profiles, Risk Factors, and Outcomes
Mugundhan Rajarajan, Bhagyasree Madduri, Nitin Mohan, Merle Fernandes
Cornea. 2022; Publish Ah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Trends in the Microbiological Spectrum of Nonviral Keratitis at a Single Tertiary Care Ophthalmic Hospital in India: A Review of 30 years
Joveeta Joseph, Roshini Karoliya, Esther Sheba, Savitri Sharma, Bhupesh Bagga, Prashant Garg
Cornea. 2022; Publish Ah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Clinical and Microbiological Spectra and Therapeutic Outcomes of Polymicrobial Keratitis
Anubha Rathi, Khuraman Ramazanova, Somasheila I. Murthy, Ashik Mohamed, Joveeta Joseph, Mariya Bashir Doctor, Suchita Pandey, Varsha M. Rathi
Cornea. 2022; Publish Ah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Bacterial Keratitis: Clinical Features, Causative Organisms, and Outcome During a 13-year Study Period
Abdulmohsen Almulhim, Muhannad I. Alkhalifah, Hatem Kalantan, Waleed K. Alsarhani
Cornea. 2022; Publish Ah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Multidrug-resistant keratitis: challenging yet manageable
Sonali Sahoo, Himabindu Alluri, Sanchita Mitra, Smrutirekha Priyadarshini, Srikant K Sahu, Amrita Mohanty, Sujata Das
British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; : bjophthalm
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of microbial keratitis in South East Nepal: a mixed-methods study
Lila Raj Puri, Helen Burn, Abhishek Roshan, Ramanand Biswakarma, Matthew Burton
BMJ Open Ophthalmology. 2022; 7(1): e001031
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24 Accompanying a semi-nested PCR assay to support histopathology findings of fungal keratitis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded corneal samples
Mohammad Javad Ashraf, Foroogh Shamsizadeh, Hamid Morovati, Safoora Hejazinia, Mohammad Kord, Saham Ansari, Keyvan Pakshir, Golsa Shekarkhar, Kamiar Zomorodian
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2022;
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25 Challenges in management of microbial keratitis during COVID-19 pandemic related lockdown: a comparative analysis with pre pandemic data
Aravind Roy, Minal Kanhere, Mugundhan Rajarajan, Rohit Dureja, Bhupesh Bagga, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma, Ashik Mohammed, Merle Fernandes
International Ophthalmology. 2022;
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26 Evaluation of ligand modified poly (N-Isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogel for etiological diagnosis of corneal infection
Nagaveni Shivshetty, Thomas Swift, Abigail Pinnock, David Pownall, Sheila Mac Neil, Ian Douglas, Prashant Garg, Stephen Rimmer
Experimental Eye Research. 2022; 214: 108881
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27 Fungi of the human eye: Culture to mycobiome
Sisinthy Shivaji, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Gumpili Sai Prashanthi, Kotakonda Arunasri, Taraprasad Das
Experimental Eye Research. 2022; 217: 108968
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28 Molecular Identification, Phylogeny and Antifungal Susceptibilities of Dematiaceous Fungi isolated from Human Keratomycosis
Arumugam Mythili, Coimbatore Subramanian Shobana, Krisztina Krizsán, Anamangadan Shafeeq Hassan, Annanthode Balakrishnan Sangeetha, Mónika Homa, Tamás Papp, Raed Abdullah Alharbi, AyoubAl Othaim, Alaa Baazeem, Kanesan Panneer Selvam, Moorthy Kannaiyan, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László Kredics, Palanisamy Manikandan
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2022;
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29 Diagnostic armamentarium of infectious keratitis: A comprehensive review
Darren S.J. Ting, Bhavesh P. Gopal, Rashmi Deshmukh, Gerami D. Seitzman, Dalia G. Said, Harminder S. Dua
The Ocular Surface. 2022; 23: 27
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Thomas Swift, Abigail Pinnock, Nagaveni Shivshetty, David Pownall, Sheila Mac Neil, Ian Douglas, Prashant Garg, Stephen Rimmer
MethodsX. 2022; : 101684
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31 Antimicrobial peptide S100A12 (calgranulin C) inhibits growth, biofilm formation, pyoverdine secretion and suppresses type VI secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Priyasha Mishra, Sanjay Ch, Seok Jong Hong, Swati Biswas, Sanhita Roy
Microbial Pathogenesis. 2022; : 105654
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32 Synergistic activity of pomegranate rind extract and Zn (II) against Candida albicans under planktonic and biofilm conditions, and a mechanistic insight based upon intracellular ROS induction
Vildan Celiksoy, Rachael L. Moses, Alastair J. Sloan, Ryan Moseley, Charles M. Heard
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
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33 Elucidating the clinical, microbiological and molecular diagnostic aspects of Macrophomina phaseolina keratitis
Lalit Kishore Ahirwar, Esther Sheba, Saumya Jakati, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Shalem Raj Padakandla, Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma
Medical Mycology. 2022; 60(4)
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34 Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia With Coexistent Microbial Keratitis: Incidence, Risk Factors, Clinical Features, Microbiological Profile, and Treatment Outcome
Anasua G. Kapoor, Vijitha S. Vempuluru, Srujana Laghimshetty, Aravind Roy, Savitri Sharma, Dilip K. Mishra, Ashik Mohamed, Swathi Kaliki
Cornea. 2022; 41(3): 294
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35 Use of Topical Cyclosporine 0.1% in Therapeutic Penetrating Keratoplasty for Fungal Keratitis
Samrat Chatterjee, Deepshikha Agrawal
Cornea. 2022; 41(9): 1116
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36 An overview of microbiological profile in chronic microbial keratitis at a tertiary care center
Manisha Gupta, Priyanka Gupta, Juhi Panwar
Himalayan Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 16(2): 44
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37 Clinical and Mycological Features of Fungal Keratitis: A Retrospective Single-Center Study (2012-2018)
Ibrahim Inan Harbiyeli, Elif Erdem, Nuhkan Görkemli, Astan Ibayev, Hazal Kandemir, Arbil Açikalin, Macit Ilkit, Meltem Yagmur
Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 52(2): 75
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38 Comparison of Culture-Positive and -Negative Microbial Keratitis
Semir Yarimada, Özlem Barut Selver, Melis Palamar, Sait Egrilmez, Sabire Söhret Aydemir, Süleyha Hilmioglu Polat, Ayse Yagci
Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 52(1): 1
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39 Microbiological Profile in Patients Having Keratitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India
Pritha Pramanick, Mallika Sengupta, Madhumita Banerjee, Sougata Ghosh, Anita Nandi Mitra, Mandira Chakraborty, Manideepa Sengupta
Cureus. 2022;
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40 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Infectious Keratitis Outcomes: A Retrospective Multicenter Study in Tertiary Eye Hospitals of South India
Josephine S. Christy, Priya Mathews, Anita Rhagavan, Anitha Venugopal, Divya Manohar, Anuja Janakiraman, Preethika Gandhi, Srujana Nallobolu, Esen K. Akpek
Cornea. 2021; 40(11): 1474
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41 Polymicrobial Keratitis: Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, Bacterial Profile, and Antimicrobial Resistance
Laura A. González-Dibildox, José A. Oyervidez-Alvarad, Kristian A. Vazquez-Romo, Nallely Ramos-Betancourt, Everardo Hernandez-Quintela, Francisco Beltra, Manuel Garza-Leon
Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 2021; 47(8): 465
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42 Fungal Keratitis in the Egyptian Delta: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Microbiological Diagnosis
Nashwa Sadik, Sara Mohamed Elzeiny, Yasmine Emad Ali, Doaa Sobeih
Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2021; : 1
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43 Corynebacterium macginleyi in the era of MALDI-TOF MS: epidemiology, susceptibility patterns and prevalence of co-infection
Peivern Fong, Grace Butel-Simoes, Michelle J. Francis, Tony M. Korman, Maryza Graham
Pathology. 2021;
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44 Paradox of complex diversity: Challenges in the diagnosis and management of bacterial keratitis
Rohan Bir Singh, Sujata Das, James Chodosh, Namrata Sharma, Michael E. Zegans, Regis P. Kowalski, Vishal Jhanji
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2021; : 101028
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45 Exosomes derived from thymic stromal lymphopoietin-treated dendritic cells regulate T helper 17/regulatory T cell differentiation via miR-21/Smad7 axis
Qingshan Ji, Jiajia Liu, Yiran Dong, Lisong Wang, Kai Dong, Berthold Setiz, Nóra Szentmáry, Bin Qu, Lei Shi
Experimental Cell Research. 2021; 398(1): 112393
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46 Microbiological diagnosis of Acanthamoebic keratitis: experience from tertiary care center of North India
Kirti Megha, Megha Sharma, Amit Gupta, Rakesh Sehgal, Sumeeta Khurana
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2021; 100(2): 115339
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47 Pathobiology and treatment of viral keratitis
Raghuram Koganti, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Raza Ali Naqvi, Deepak Shukla, Afsar R. Naqvi
Experimental Eye Research. 2021; 205: 108483
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48 Melting corneal ulcers (keratomalacia) in dogs: A 5-year clinical and microbiological study (2014–2018)
Agata Tsvetanova, Roger M. Powell, Kamen A. Tsvetanov, Kerry M. Smith, David J. Gould
Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2021; 24(3): 265
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49 Development of cross-linked collagen/pullulan ocular film for sustained delivery of Besifloxacin using novel spin-coating technique
Mahesh P. More, Shweta Patil, Sharwari Ghodke, Pravin O. Patil, Ratnesh Jain, Prajakta Dandekar, Prashant K. Deshmukh
Journal of Materials Research. 2021; 36(16): 3278
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50 Promising Antifungal Potential of Engineered Non-ionic Surfactant-Based Vesicles: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Amit Verma, Ankit Jain, Ankita Tiwari, Shivani Saraf, Pritish Kumar Panda, Sanjay K. Jain
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2021; 22(1)
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51 Antibacterial effect of the antiseptic picloxydine dihydrochloride on conjunctival isolates of gram-negative bacteria
A.S. Khalatyan, E.G. Kholina, M.G. Strakhovskaya, M.V. Budzinskaya, N.V. Shevlyagina, V.G. Zhukhovitsky
Vestnik oftal'mologii. 2021; 137(5): 238
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52 Open-Source Automatic Biomarker Measurement on Slit-Lamp Photography to Estimate Visual Acuity in Microbial Keratitis
Jessica Loo, Maria A. Woodward, Venkatesh Prajna, Matthias F. Kriegel, Mercy Pawar, Mariam Khan, Leslie M. Niziol, Sina Farsiu
Translational Vision Science & Technology. 2021; 10(12): 2
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53 Successful Control of a Co-Infection Caused by Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Keratitis
Debarati Paul, Suman Saha, Neelam Singh, Jayansgu Sengupta, Santi M. Mandal
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets. 2021; 21(2): 284
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54 Etiological factors & microbiological characteristics of infectious keratitis in western Maharashtra
Madhuvanthi Mohan, Renu Magdum, Sucheta Kaul, Chaitali Desai, Namratha Judith Cardoza, Madhuvanthi Mohan
Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2021; 7(2): 402
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55 Study of keratomycosis at a tertiary care teaching hospital
Veluri Gayathri, Ami Jeswin
IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases. 2021; 7(2): 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Medical History, Clinical Features, Treatment Outcome and Its Predictors Among Infectious Keratitis Patients in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study
Tolcha Regasa Dago, Dagmawit Kifle Woldemichael, Fekede Bekele Daba
Clinical Ophthalmology. 2021; Volume 15: 1223
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57 Mycotic Keratitis—A Global Threat from the Filamentous Fungi
Jeremy J. Hoffman, Matthew J. Burton, Astrid Leck
Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(4): 273
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58 Recent Perspectives in the Management of Fungal Keratitis
Nimmy Raj, Murugesan Vanathi, Nishat Hussain Ahmed, Noopur Gupta, Neiwete Lomi, Radhika Tandon
Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(11): 907
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59 Clinical Manifestations of Fungal Keratitis Following Penetrating Keratoplasty
Do Hee Park, Jeoung Woo Nam, Hyeon Jeong Yoon, Kyung-Chul Yoon
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society. 2021; 62(4): 472
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60 Distribution, Prevalence, and Causative Agents of Fungal Keratitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (1990 to 2020)
Kazem Ahmadikia, Sanaz Aghaei Gharehbolagh, Bahareh Fallah, Mahsa Naeimi Eshkaleti, Pooneh Malekifar, Saeedeh Rahsepar, Muhammad I. Getso, Savitri Sharma, Shahram Mahmoudi
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 11
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61 Post-keratoplasty Infectious Keratitis: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Management, and Outcomes
Anna Song, Rashmi Deshmukh, Haotian Lin, Marcus Ang, Jodhbir S. Mehta, James Chodosh, Dalia G. Said, Harminder S. Dua, Darren S. J. Ting
Frontiers in Medicine. 2021; 8
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62 Risk Factors, Clinical Outcomes, and Prognostic Factors of Bacterial Keratitis: The Nottingham Infectious Keratitis Study
Darren Shu Jeng Ting, Jessica Cairns, Bhavesh P. Gopal, Charlotte Shan Ho, Lazar Krstic, Ahmad Elsahn, Michelle Lister, Dalia G. Said, Harminder S. Dua
Frontiers in Medicine. 2021; 8
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Vandana Sardana, Sameer R Verma
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64 Characterization of Ocular Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Non-Contact Lens Related Keratitis Patients from South India
Alpana Dave, Apurwa Samarth, Roshni Karolia, Savitri Sharma, Esther Karunakaran, Lynda Partridge, Sheila MacNeil, Peter N. Monk, Prashant Garg, Sanhita Roy
Microorganisms. 2020; 8(2): 260
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Sanjay Kumar Goyal, Uma Meena, D.S. Meena, Vijay Gupta
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66 Clinical Analysis of Candida Species Keratitis: Predisposing Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Outcomes
Chan Ho Cho, Won Mo Gu, Sang-Bumm Lee
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society. 2020; 61(9): 1023
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67 Epidemiological and Microbiological Profile of Suppurative Corneal Ulcer in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India
Krittika Palchoudhury, Sagar Karmakar, Chandana Chakraborti
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2020; 7(29): 1428
[Pubmed] | [DOI]

A 10-Year Retrospective Clinical Analysis of Fungal Keratitis in a Portuguese Tertiary Centre

Ana Maria Cunha, Joăo Tiago Loja, Luís Torrăo, Raúl Moreira, Dolores Pinheiro, Fernando Falcăo-Reis, Joăo Pinheiro-Costa
Clinical Ophthalmology. 2020; Volume 14: 3833
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69 In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Microcystic Keratitis
Michal Dembski, Anna Nowinska, Klaudia Ulfik, Slawomir Teper, Edward Wylegala, Ciro Costagliola
Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020; 2020: 1
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70 Filamentous Fungal Keratitis in Taiwan: Based on Molecular Diagnosis
Ning Hung, Lung-Kun Yeh, David Hui-Kang Ma, Hsin-Chiung Lin, Hsin-Yuan Tan, Hung-Chi Chen, Pei-Lun Sun, Ching-Hsi Hsiao
Translational Vision Science & Technology. 2020; 9(8): 32
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71 Cladorrhinum Bulbillosum Keratitis: Unraveling an Unusual Infection
Radhika Natarajan, Samip Mehta
Current Fungal Infection Reports. 2020; 14(4): 373
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72 Microscopic characterization of biofilm in mixed keratitis in a novel murine model
Diana Gabriela Ponce-Angulo, Luis Antonio Bautista-Hernández, Rosa Paulina Calvillo-Medina, Franco Ivan Castro-Tecorral, Gerardo Aparicio-Ozores, Edgar Oliver López-Villegas, Rosa María Ribas-Aparicio, Victor Manuel Bautista-de Lucio
Microbial Pathogenesis. 2020; 140: 103953
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73 A global perspective of pediatric non-viral keratitis: literature review
Antonio Di Zazzo, Marco Antonini, Merle Fernandes, Giuseppe Varacalli, Roberto Sgrulletta, Marco Coassin
International Ophthalmology. 2020; 40(10): 2771
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74 Procedures, Visits, and Procedure Costs in the Management of Microbial Keratitis
Hamza Ashfaq, Nenita Maganti, Dena Ballouz, Yilin Feng, Maria A. Woodward
Cornea. 2020; Publish Ah
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75 Efficacy of Luliconazole Against Broad-Range Filamentous Fungi Including Fusarium solani Species Complex Causing Fungal Keratitis
Daisuke Todokoro, Takashi Suzuki, Takashi Tamura, Koichi Makimura, Hideyo Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro Inagaki, Hideo Akiyama
Cornea. 2019; 38(2): 238
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76 Unilateral fungal keratitis after small-incision lenticule extraction
Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev, Shilpi Diwan, Mahipal S. Sachdev
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery Online Case Reports. 2019; 7(1): 11
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77 The Spectrum of Microbial Keratitis: An Updated Review
Christopher Bartimote, John Foster, Stephanie Watson
The Open Ophthalmology Journal. 2019; 13(1): 100
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78 Diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis. Part I
Yelena V. Skryabina, Yuriy S. Astakhov, Yanina S. Konenkova, Farkhod O. Kasymov, Nataliya G. Zumbulidze, Tatiana S. Varganova, Vladimir P. Petukhov, Alyona A. Pirgunova, Janek Masian, Nikolai N. Klimko, Tatyana S. Bogomolova, Ekaterina A. Desyatik
Ophthalmology Reports. 2018; 11(3): 63
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79 Surgical management of fungal keratitis
Prashant Garg, Aravind Roy, Paavan Kalra
Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 2018; 13(6): 351
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Microplasma Jet Arrays as a Therapeutic Choice for Fungal Keratitis
Hyun Jung Park, Soon Hee Kim, Hyung Woo Ju, Hyesook Lee, Yoonjin Lee, Sehyun Park, Heejun Yang, Sung-Jin Park, J. Gary Eden, Jaewook Yang, Chan Hum Park
Scientific Reports. 2018; 8(1)
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81 Mast Cell Activation Protects Cornea by Promoting Neutrophil Infiltration via Stimulating ICAM-1 and Vascular Dilation in Fungal Keratitis
Yanting Xie, Hongmin Zhang, Susu Liu, Guoming Chen, Siyu He, Zhijie Li, Liya Wang
Scientific Reports. 2018; 8(1)
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82 Exserohilum Keratitis: Clinical Profile of Nine Patients and Comparison of Morphology versus ITS-Based DNA Sequencing for Species Identification of the Fungal Isolates
Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Savitri Sharma, Paavan Kalra, Dilip Kumar Mishra
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2018; 36(4): 564
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83 Prospective Study of the Diagnostic Accuracy of the In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope for Severe Microbial Keratitis
Jaya D. Chidambaram, Namperumalsamy V. Prajna, Natasha L. Larke, Srikanthi Palepu, Shruti Lanjewar, Manisha Shah, Shanmugam Elakkiya, Prajna Lalitha, Nicole Carnt, Minna H. Vesaluoma, Melanie Mason, Scott Hau, Matthew J. Burton
Ophthalmology. 2016; 123(11): 2285
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Ratna Kumari B. V. S, Madusudana Rao K. V, Raja Rajeswar M
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2016; 3(32): 1491
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85 Bacteriological profile and drug susceptibility patterns in dacryocystitis patients attending Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Yared Assefa,Feleke Moges,Mengistu Endris,Banchamlak Zereay,Bemnet Amare,Damtew Bekele,Solomon Tesfaye,Andargachew Mulu,Yeshambel Belyhun
BMC Ophthalmology. 2015; 15(1)
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86 Filamentous fungal infections of the cornea: a global overview of epidemiology and drug sensitivity
László Kredics,Venkatapathy Narendran,Coimbatore Subramanian Shobana,Csaba Vágvölgyi,Palanisamy Manikandan
Mycoses. 2015; 58(4): 243
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87 Lamellar Keratoplasty Treatment of Fungal Corneal Ulcers With Acellular Porcine Corneal Stroma
M.-C. Zhang,X. Liu,Y. Jin,D.-L. Jiang,X.-S. Wei,H.-T. Xie
American Journal of Transplantation. 2015; : n/a
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88 Pythium insidiosum Keratitis
Savitri Sharma,Praveen K. Balne,Swapna R. Motukupally,Sujata Das,Prashant Garg,Srikant K. Sahu,Kotakonda Arunasri,Kodiganti Manjulatha,Dilip K. Mishra,Sisinthy Shivaji
Cornea. 2015; : 1
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89 Seasonal, Geographic, and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Microbial Keratitis
Nina Ni,Enoch M. Nam,Kristin M. Hammersmith,Parveen K. Nagra,Amir A. Azari,Benjamin E. Leiby,Yang Dai,F. Abigail Cabrera,Jenny F. Ma,Calvin E. Lambert,Stephanie E. Honig,Christopher J. Rapuano
Cornea. 2015; : 1
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90 The crosstalk between TLR2 and NOD2 in Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis
Jiayin Wu,Yuting Zhang,Zhaoting Xin,Xinyi Wu
Molecular Immunology. 2015; 64(2): 235
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91 Epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis in Sfax (Tunisia)
F. Cheikhrouhou,F. Makni,S. Neji,A. Trigui,H. Sellami,H. Trabelsi,R. Guidara,J. Fki,A. Ayadi
Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology. 2014;
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92 Outcomes of Therapeutic Penetrating Keratoplasty From a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in Northern India
Namrata Sharma,Mohit Jain,Sri V. Sehra,Prafulla Maharana,Tushar Agarwal,Gita Satpathy,Rasik B. Vajpayee
Cornea. 2014; 33(2): 114
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93 Free living amoebae could enhance Fusarium oxysporum growth
E. Cateau,Y. Hechard,B. Fernandez,M.H. Rodier
Fungal Ecology. 2014; 8: 12
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94 Cell Penetrating Peptides as Efficient Nanocarriers for Delivery of Antifungal Compound, Natamycin for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis
Aastha Jain,Sushmita G. Shah,Archana Chugh
Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;
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95 Incidence and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis in a Danish population from 2000 to 2013
Stine E. Nielsen,Esben Nielsen,Hanne Olsen Julian,Jens Lindegaard,Klavs Hřjgaard,Anders Ivarsen,Jesper Hjortdal,Steffen Heegaard
Acta Ophthalmologica. 2014; : n/a
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96 Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negativeStaphylococcus aureusand coagulase negative staphylococci
Sasmita Panda,Sarita Kar,Ranginee Choudhury,Savitri Sharma,Durg V. Singh
FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2014; 352(1): 114
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97 Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study
Mohammad M. Khater,Nehal S. Shehab,Anwar S. El-Badry
Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014; 2014: 1
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98 Clinical and Microbiological Analysis of Gram-Positive Bacterial Keratitis, a 15-Year Review
Mi Rae Kim,Sang Bumm Lee
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society. 2014; 55(10): 1432
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99 Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis
Devarshi U. Gajjar,Anuradha K. Pal,Bharat K. Ghodadra,Abhay R. Vasavada
BioMed Research International. 2013; 2013: 1
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100 Protective Role of Murine ß-Defensins 3 and 4 and Cathelin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide in Fusarium solani Keratitis
Satya Sree N. Kolar, Hasna Baidouri, Samuel Hanlon, Alison M. McDermott, G. S. Deepe
Infection and Immunity. 2013; 81(8): 2669
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101 Mycotic keratitis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management
P. A. Thomas,J. Kaliamurthy
Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2013; 19(3): 210
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102 Can we apply the results of the Steroid Corneal Ulcer Trial toNocardiainfections of the cornea?
Prashant Garg,Jayesh Vazirani
Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 2013; 8(1): 41
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103 Microbial keratitis following vegetative matter injury
Mukesh Taneja,Jatin N. Ashar,Anurag Mathur,Suma Nalamada,Prashant Garg
International Ophthalmology. 2013; 33(2): 117
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104 Is blood agar an alternative to sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis
Ashok Kumar Reddy,Upputuri Brahmaiah,Nitesh Narayen,Ravi Kumar Reddy,Rupak Kumar Reddy,Meghraj Chitta,Srinivas Prasad,Rishi Swarup,Syed Maaz Mohiuddin,Madhukar Reddy,Murali K. Aasuri,B. S. R. Murthy,Milind Bhide,Sajid Ahmed
International Ophthalmology. 2013; 33(3): 251
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105 Role of Liquid Culture Media in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Microbial Keratitis
Yogesh Bhadange,Savitri Sharma,Sujata Das,Srikant K. Sahu
American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013; 156(4): 745
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106 Daily disposable lenses: The better alternative
P. Cho,M.V. Boost
Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 2013; 36(1): 4
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107 Improvement in corneal scarring following bacterial keratitis
S M McClintic,M Srinivasan,J Mascarenhas,D A Greninger,N R Acharya,T M Lietman,J D Keenan
Eye. 2013; 27(3): 443
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108 Techniques, indications and complications of corneal debridement
Lindsay A. McGrath,Graham A. Lee
Survey of Ophthalmology. 2013;
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109 Pan-Antimicrobial Failure of Alexidine as a Contact Lens Disinfectant When Heated in Bausch & Lomb Plastic Containers
B. Laurel Elder,John D. Bullock,Ronald E. Warwar,Harry J. Khamis,Shaden Z. Khalaf
Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 2012; 38(4): 222
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110 Confocal Microscopy
Samrat Chatterjee, Deesphikha Agrawal
Ophthalmology. 2012; 119(2): 428
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111 Shifting Trends in Bacterial Keratitis in Toronto
Alejandro Lichtinger,Sonia N. Yeung,Peter Kim,Maoz D. Amiran,Alfonso Iovieno,Uri Elbaz,Judy Y.F. Ku,Rachel Wolff,David S. Rootman,Allan R. Slomovic
Ophthalmology. 2012; 119(9): 1785
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112 Study of microbial keratitis in central India
Satpathi, P., Satpathi, S.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2012; 6(3): 295-298
113 Diagnosis of fungal keratitis: current options
Savitri Sharma
Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics. 2012; : 1
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114 A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir,A. Norhayati,Ishak Siti-Raihan,M. Ibrahim
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2012; 2012: 1
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115 Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations in Fungal Keratitis :
Han-Ying Peggy Chang, James Chodosh
International Ophthalmology Clinics. 2011; 51(4): 33
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116 Retained releasable suture causing infectious keratitis following trabeculectomy : Letter to the Editor
Samrat Chatterjee, Deepshikha Agrawal, Partha Mandal
Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2011; : no
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117 Diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern india
Bibhudutta Rautaraya, Savitri Sharma, Sarita Kar, Sujata Das, Srikant K Sahu
BMC Ophthalmology. 2011; 11(1): 39
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118 Ocular Parasitoses and Their Immunology
Suggerappa Laxmanappa Hoti, Veena Tandon
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2011; 19(6): 385
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119 Severe pigmented keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum bulbillosum
DU Gajjar, AK Pal, JM Santos, BK Ghodadra, AR Vasavada
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2011; 29(4): 434
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120 Evaluation of intrastromal voriconazole injection in recalcitrant deep fungal keratitis: Case series
Sharma, N., Agarwal, P., Sinha, R., Titiyal, J.S., Velpandian, T., Vajpayee, R.B.
British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011; 95(12): 1735-1737
121 Natamycin in the treatment of keratomycosis: Correlation of treatment outcome and in vitro susceptibility of fungal isolates
Pradhan, L., Sharma, S., Nalamada, S., Sahu, S.K., Das, S., Garg, P.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011; 59(6): 512-514
122 Severe pigmented keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum bulbillosum
Gajjar, D.U., Pal, A.K., Santos, J.M., Ghodadra, B.K., Vasavada, A.R.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2011; 29(4): 434-437
123 Role of host-defence peptides in eye diseases
Satya S. Kolar, Alison M. McDermott
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2011;
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124 Bacteriocin-like substance from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens shows remarkable inhibition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga
Lisianne Brittes Benitez, Karin Caumo, Adriano Brandelli, Marilise Brittes Rott
Parasitology Research. 2011; 108(3): 687
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125 Hypopyon corneal ulcer | [Úlcera corneal con hipopión]
Sarlat Ribas, M.A.
FMC Formacion Medica Continuada en Atencion Primaria. 2011; 18(5): 273-274
126 Clinical, microbiological and therapeutic features of severe bacterial keratitis | [Caractéristiques cliniques, microbiologiques et thé rapeutiques dćune série de 111 kératites bactériennes sévčres]
Darugar, A., Gaujoux, T., Goldschmidt, P., Chaumeil, C., Laroche, L., Borderie, V.
Journal Francais dćOphtalmologie. 2011; 34(6): 362-368
127 Demographic and aetiological profile of microbial corneal ulcer in a hill state in North India
Malhotra, C., Nagpal, R.C., Soni, R., Bahadur, H.
Asian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011; 12(4): 211-215
128 Caractéristiques cliniques, microbiologiques et thérapeutiques d’une série de 111 kératites bactériennes sévčres
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Journal Français d Ophtalmologie. 2011; 34(6): 362
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129 Role of Confocal Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Fungal and Acanthamoeba Keratitis
Savitri Sharma, Virender S. Sangwan, Gullapalli N. Rao, Ravi Thomas, Pravin K. Vaddavalli, Prashant Garg
Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(1): 29
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130 Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Fungal Keratitis in the United States, 2001–2007: A Multicenter Study
Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(5): 920
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131 Optimizing Diagnosis and Management of Nocardia Keratitis, Scleritis, and Endophthalmitis: 11-Year Microbial and Clinical Overview
Francis Char DeCroos, Prashant Garg, Ashok K. Reddy, Ashish Sharma, Sannapaneni Krishnaiah, Meeta Mungale, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya
Ophthalmology. 2011;
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132 Úlcera corneal con hipopión
Miguel Ángel Sarlat Ribas
FMC - Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria. 2011; 18(5): 273
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133 In vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial keratitis isolates in Oxford, UK: a 10-year review
H O Orlans, S J Hornby, I C J W Bowler
Eye. 2011; 25(4): 489
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134 Contact lens-related microbial keratitis: how have epidemiology and genetics helped us with pathogenesis and prophylaxis
F Stapleton, N Carnt
Eye. 2011;
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135 Fungal, Mycobacterial, and Nocardia infections and the eye: an update
P Garg
Eye. 2011;
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136 Non-viral microbial keratitis in children
Abdullah G. Al-Otaibi
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;
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137 Incidence and microbiological profile of mycotic keratitis in a tertiary care eye hospital: A retrospective analysis
Hind Alkatan, Sreedharan Athmanathan, Conchita C. Canites
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;
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138 Acanthamoeba castellanii: Morphological analysis of the interaction with human cornea
Omańa-Molina, M., González-Robles, A., Salazar-Villatoro, L.I., Cristóbal-Ramos, A.R., González-Lázaro, M., Salinas-Moreno, E., Méndez-Cruz, R., (...), Martínez-Palomo, A.
Experimental Parasitology. 2010; 126(1): 73-78
139 Diagnosis of microbial keratitis
Garg, P.
British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010; 94(8): 961-962
140 The corneal expression of antimicrobial peptides during experimental fungal keratitis
Yuan, X., Hua, X., Wilhelmus, K.R.
Current Eye Research. 2010; 35(10): 872-879
141 Keratomycosis in the area of Tunis: Epidemiological data, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities | [Les kératites fongiques dans la région de Tunis: Caractéristiques épidémiologiques, modalités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques]
Anane, S., Ayed, N.B., Malek, I., Chebbi, A., Lejri, S., Bouguila, H., Kaouech, E., (...), Chaker, E.
Annales de Biologie Clinique. 2010; 68(4): 441-447
142 Current efforts and the potential of nanomedicine in treating fungal keratitis
Gratieri, T., Gelfuso, G.M., Lopez, R.F., Souto, E.B.
Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 2010; 5(3): 365-384
143 Editorial: Ocular infections: Research in India
Sharma, S.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2010; 28(2): 91-94
144 Acanthamoeba castellanii: Morphological analysis of the interaction with human cornea
Maritza Omańa-Molina, Arturo González-Robles, Lizbeth Iliana Salazar-Villatoro, Ana Ruth Cristóbal-Ramos, Mónica González-Lázaro, Edmundo Salinas-Moreno, Rene Méndez-Cruz, Manuel Sánchez-Cornejo, Enrique De la Torre-González, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo
Experimental Parasitology. 2010; 126(1): 73
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145 Ocular infections: Research in India
S Sharma
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2010; 28(2): 91
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146 Clinical Manifestation and Predisposing Factors of Infectious Keratitis Following Penetrating Keratoplasty in Korean Patients
Mijin Kim, Joo Youn Oh, Mee Kum Kim, Sang Beom Han, Jin Hak Lee, Won Ryang Wee
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society. 2010; 51(4): 504
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147 Three Cases of Secondary Fungal Infection in Herpes Simplex Keratitis
Gui Hyeong Mun, Yeoung Geol Park, In Cheon You, Kyung Chul Yoon
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society. 2010; 51(9): 1271
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148 The Corneal Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides during Experimental Fungal Keratitis
Xiaoyong Yuan,Xia Hua,Kirk R. Wilhelmus
Current Eye Research. 2010; 35(10): 872
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149 Current efforts and the potential of nanomedicine in treating fungal keratitis
Taís Gratieri,Guilherme M Gelfuso,Renata FV Lopez,Eliana B Souto
Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 2010; 5(3): 365
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150 Etiologic Diagnosis of Corneal Ulceration at a Tertiary Eye Center in Kathmandu, Nepal
Michael R Feilmeier,Kavitha R Sivaraman,Matt Oliva,Geoffrey C Tabin,Reeta Gurung
Cornea. 2010; 29(12): 1380
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