

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

Year : 2010  Volume
: 58
 Issue : 6  Page : 517518 

Principles of sample size calculation
Nithya J Gogtay
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Date of Submission  31Aug2010 
Date of Acceptance  31Aug2010 
Date of Web Publication  16Oct2010 
Correspondence Address: Nithya J Gogtay Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai  400 012 India
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/03014738.71692
In most areas in life, it is difficult to work with populations and hence researchers work with samples. The calculation of the sample size needed depends on the data type and distribution. Elements include consideration of the alpha error, beta error, clinically meaningful difference, and the variability or standard deviation. The final number arrived at should be increased to include a safety margin and the dropout rate. Over and above this, sample size calculations must take into account all available data, funding, support facilities, and ethics of subjecting patients to research. Keywords: Alpha error, beta error, clinically meaningful difference, variability
How to cite this article: Gogtay NJ. Principles of sample size calculation. Indian J Ophthalmol 2010;58:5178 
In most areas in life, it is very difficult to work with populations. During elections for instance, news channels interview a few hundred people and predict results based on their choices. Similarly, in a factory manufacturing light bulbs, a few bulbs are chosen at random to assess their quality. Likewise, in research, while it is ideal to work with the entire population, it is almost impossible to do so. Hence researchers choose to work with samples. Sample size calculations enable researchers to draw strong robust conclusions from the limited amount of information and also permit generalization of results. It is however important to remember that since it is very difficult to predict the outcome of any clinical study or lab experiment, sample size calculations will always remain approximate.
The estimation of the minimum sample size required for any study is not a single unique method, but the concepts underlying most methods are similar. The determination of the sample size is critical in planning clinical research because this is usually the most important factor determining the time and funding to perform the experiment. In most studies, there is a primary research question that the researcher wants to investigate. Sample size calculations are based on this question. Sample size calculations must take into account all available data, funding, support facilities, and ethics of subjecting patients to research. The present paper outlines the principles of sample size calculation for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a few solved examples.
Elements in Sample Size Calculation    ^{[1]}
Sample size calculations begin with an understanding of the type of data and distribution we are dealing with. Very broadly, data are divided into quantitative (numerical) and categorical (qualitative) data. For the former, information on the mean responses in the two groups' u1 and u2 are required as also the common standard deviation for the two groups. For categorical data, p1 and p2 or information on proportions of successes in the two groups is needed. This information is usually obtained either from the published literature, a pilot study, or at times guesstimated. The other two key components are the alpha and beta error. Because the estimated sample size represents the minimum number of subjects required for the study, a "safety factor" should be added. The size of the safety factor is again an educated guess. Additions for dropouts/attrition during the course of the study should also be made. Apart from this, an understanding of whether the data are normally distributed (follows the Gaussian or bellshaped curve) or otherwise is also needed. ^{[2]}
Understanding of Key Terms    ^{[3]}
The calculation of sample size based on power considerations requires that an investigator specify the points given below. The first three items are under the control of the investigator:
The size of the effect that is clinically worthwhile to detect (d). This for numerical data is the difference between u1 and u2 for quantitative data and p1 and p2 for categorical data. This is also called the clinical meaningful difference, which will make the physician change his or her practice.
The probability of falsely rejecting a true null hypothesis (αerror). This is also called the false positive error and is the probability of finding a difference where none exists. This error is perceived to be the more dangerous of the two errors, since it can impact clinical practice. It is also called the regulator's error. The alpha error is linked to the Pvalue or probability value and is conventionally set at 5%.
The probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis (βerror). This is also called the false negative error and is the probability of NOT finding a difference when one actually exists. This is conventionally set either at 10% or 20% and is also called the investigator's error.
The standard deviation of the population being studied (SD or σ). This is the variability or spread associated with quantitative data.
Standard values of the alpha and beta error are given in the solved examples and can be found in most statistics books. The examples below can be solved by hand using simple or scientific calculators. The website and the pdf file, http://www.idfbridges.org/files/BRIDGESsamplesizecalculationandexampleofbudget.pdf, provide an easy tool of how to use online sample size calculators.
Few Solved Examples   
(A) Sample size for one mean, normal distribution
Problem: An emergency medicine physician wants to know if the mean heart rate after a particular type of trauma differs from the healthy population rate of 72 beats/min. He considers a mean difference of 6 beats/min to be clinically meaningful. He also chooses 9.1 beats/min as the variation based on a previously published study. How many patients will be needed to carry out the study at 5% significance and 80% power?
In this example, the following data are given to us:
 the size of the effect that is clinically worthwhile to detect (d) = 6 beats/min
 the probability of falsely rejecting a true null hypothesis (α) = 0.05, Z_{α} = 1.96
 the probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis (β) = 0.80, Z_{β} = 0.84
the standard deviation of the population being studied (SD or σ) = 9.1 beats/min.
n = 18
or
18 patients with a particular type of trauma need to be studied by the physician.
(B) Sample size for two means, quantitative data
where d = u1  u2/2.
Problem: A new treatment for hypertension is being compared with placebo. How many patients will be required at 90% power and 5% significance to detect an average difference of 5 mmHg between the Rx group and placebo group assuming a standard deviation (a measure of interpatient variability) to be 10 mm?
In this example, the following data are given to us:
 the size of the effect that is clinically worthwhile to detect (d) = 5 mm
 the probability of falsely rejecting a true null hypothesis (α) = 0.05, Z_{α} = 1.96
 the probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis (β) = 0.80, Z_{β} = 1.282
 the standard deviation of the population being studied (SD or σ) = 10 mm.
Solution:
where d = 5/10
thus, n = 84 patients per group.
(C) Sample size for two proportions, categorical data
The BASIL studybypass versus angioplasty: The statistical calculations were based on the 3year survival value of 50% in the angioplasty and 65% in the bypass group. At 5% significance and 90% power, how many patients would be needed to detect a difference between the two groups? (Lancet 2005;366:192534).
In this example, the following data are given to us:
 the size of the effect that is clinically worthwhile to detect (d) = 15% or 0.15
 the probability of falsely rejecting a true null hypothesis (α) = 0.05, Z_{α} = 1.96
 the probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis (β) = 0.80, Z_{β} = 1.282.
where, d is
p1  p2
√p (1p).
And p = p1 + p2/2
Solution:
p1 = 0.65, p2=.50, p = 0.575,
i.e., there will be 233 patients per group.
The sample size calculation should be done with the help of a statistician. However, the present article provides the basic understanding of the principles behind the sample size calculation. This would help in providing the required inputs to the clinicians while interacting with the statistician.
References   
1.  Julios SA. Sample sizes for clinical trials with normal data. Stats Med 2004;23:192186. 
2.  Devane D, Begley CM, Clarke M. How many do I need? Basic principles of sample size estimation. J Adv Nursing 2004;47:297302. 
3.  Karlsson J, Engebretsen L, Dainty K, ISAKOS scientific committee. Considerations on sample size and power calculations in randomized clinical trials. Arthroscopy 2003;19:9979. 
This article has been cited by  1 
The efficacy of a tart cherry drink for the treatment of patellofemoral pain in recreationally active individuals: a placebo randomized control trial 

 Jonathan Sinclair, Philip Stainton, Stephanie Dillon, Paul John Taylor, Cassandra Richardson, Lindsay Bottoms, Sarah Jane Hobbs, Gareth Shadwell, Naomi Liles, Robert Allan   Sport Sciences for Health. 2022;   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   2 
Uncivil behaviors in nursing education from the perspectives of nursing instructors and students: a crosssectional study 

 Hamid Safarpour, Saeideh Varasteh, Leila Malekyan, Mohammad Ghazanfarabadi, Mohammad Sistani Allahabadi, Hadi Khoshab, Tayebeh Akafzadeh, Masomeh Foladvandi   International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2022; : 100444   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   3 
Influence of Chemical, Electrochemical Exfoliation, Hydrophilic, and Hydrophobic Binder on the Sorption Capacity of Graphene in Capacitive Deionization 

 G. Venkatesan, S. Pauline   Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2022; 148(7)   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   4 
Serum Vitamin D Level and Risk of CommunityAcquired Pneumonia: A CaseControl Study 

 Guwani Liyanage, Anusha Kaneshapillai, Suthesan Kanthasamy, Morteza Saki   Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2021; 2021: 1   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   5 
Sample size, power and effect size revisited: simplified and practical approaches in preclinical, clinical and laboratory studies 

 Ceyhan Ceran Serdar, Murat Cihan, Dogan Yücel, Muhittin A Serdar   Biochemia medica. 2021; 31(1): 27   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   6 
Improving the Understanding of the Immunopathogenesis of Lymphopenia as a Correlate of SARSCoV2 Infection Risk and Disease Progression in African Patients: Protocol for a Crosssectional Study 

 Bamidele Abiodun Iwalokun, Adesola Olalekan, Eyitayo Adenipekun, Olabisi Ojo, Senapon Olusola Iwalokun, Bamidele Mutiu, Oluseyi Orija, Richard Adegbola, Babatunde Salako, Oluyemi Akinloye   JMIR Research Protocols. 2021; 10(3): e21242   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   7 
THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL MOLECULAR MODELS ON STUDENTS' VISUOSEMIOTIC REASONING SKILLS RELATED TO THE LEWIS STRUCTURE AND BALL & STICK MODEL OF AMMONIA 

 Thobile Nkosi, Lindelani Mnguni   Journal of Baltic Science Education. 2020; 19(4): 594   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   8 
Patients’ perspectives on the conventional synthetic cast vs a newly developed open cast for ankle sprains 

 Byung Cho Min, Ji Soo Yoon, Chin Youb Chung, Moon Seok Park, Ki Hyuk Sung, Kyoung Min Lee   World Journal of Orthopedics. 2020; 11(11): 492   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   9 
The mechanical effect of kinesiology tape on rounded shoulder posture in seated male workers: a singleblinded randomized controlled pilot study 

 JinTae Han,JungHoon Lee,ChulHan Yoon   Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2014; : 1   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   10 
Effect of Posterior Pelvic Tilt Taping in Women With Sacroiliac Joint Pain During Active Straight Leg Raising Who Habitually Wore HighHeeled Shoes: A Preliminary Study 

 Junghoon Lee,Wongyu Yoo,Mihyun Kim,Jaeseop Oh,Kyungsoon Lee,Jintae Han   Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2014;   [Pubmed]  [DOI]   11 
Sample size and costs estimate in epidemiological survey of dental caries  [Tamanho de amostra e estimativa de custo em levantamento epidemiológico de cárie dentária] 

 Bellon, M.L., Ambrosano, G.M.B., Pereira, S.M., SalesPeres, S.H.C., Meneghim, M.C., Pereira, A.C., Tagliaferro, E.P.S., Pardi, V.   Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia. 2012; 15(1): 96105   [Pubmed]   12 
Understanding the relevance of sample size calculation 

 Nayak, B.K.   Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010; 58(6): 469470   [Pubmed]  



