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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 238-241

Combined branch retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion – clinical features, systemic associations, and outcomes

Vitreoretina Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Sabyasachi Sengupta
Aravind Eye Hospital, Thavalakuppam, Puducherry - 605 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_340_16

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Purpose: Retinal vascular occlusions affecting both the arterial and venous systems are rare events. Combined branch retinal artery (BRAO) and vein (BRVO) occlusion are exceedingly rare and not well characterized. Methods: Six patients with combined BRAO and BRVO underwent a comprehensive eye examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and cardiovascular evaluation. Results: Mean age at presentation was 54 ± 7.8 years (range: 39–60), and five of the six were men. Patients had a combination of systemic comorbidities such as diabetes (5), hypertension (4), dyslipidemia (5), and hyperhomocysteinemia (1). All had unilateral combined occlusion characterized by narrowing and cattle tracking of blood in arteries and dilated tortuous veins in the involved quadrant. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated complete capillary drop out and a clear demarcation between the perfused and nonperfused retina. Presenting vision ranged from 6/9 to 1/60 Snellen's, and final vision depended on the macular perfusion status. All eyes were treated with angiography-guided sectoral laser photocoagulation, and three eyes required intravitreal bevacizumab due to macular edema or retinal neovascularization. Conclusions: Combined BRAO and BRVO is rare, may have unique underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, is associated with multiple systemic comorbidities and can yield good visual outcome if macula remains well perfused.

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