Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 1492
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

   Table of Contents      
PHOTO ESSAY
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1617-1618

Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head


Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission28-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance04-Aug-2018
Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amar Pujari
Room no 212, Second floor, RPC-1, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_394_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Keywords: Imaging, optic disc, smartphones


How to cite this article:
Pujari A, Mukhija R, Chawla R, Phuljhele S, Saxena R, Sharma P. Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head. Indian J Ophthalmol 2018;66:1617-8

How to cite this URL:
Pujari A, Mukhija R, Chawla R, Phuljhele S, Saxena R, Sharma P. Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Dec 5];66:1617-8. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2018/66/11/1617/244056



In the first setting, the optic nerve head findings are documented using a smartphone, a high magnifying lens that is clipped over the camera of the smartphone [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b and a 90 D lens. The images are captured after adequate pupillary dilatation, and with the patient looking straight ahead. For examining the patient's right eye, a 90 D lens held in the left hand of the examiner is placed close to the patient's eye and phone clipped with the magnifying lens is slowly moved forward and pictures are obtained [Figure 1]c. Following are a few examples of the clinical conditions captured using this technique: (1) Glaucomatous optic disc cupping, (2) normal disc, (3) temporal crescent, and (4) papillitis [Figure 1]d, [Figure 1]e, [Figure 1]f, [Figure 1]g.
Figure 1: (a and b) Detached small portable high magnifying lens and after mounting it on the smartphone. (c) The 90 D lens is held in the left hand and the clipped smartphone in the right hand to capture the disc and posterior pole images. (d) Glaucomatous optic disc cupping. (e) Healthy optic disc. (f) Temporal crescent. (g) Papillitis. (h) The smartphone is directly mounted on the direct ophthalmoscope aperture with either glue or tape. The scope is held in left in one hand and the phone in another hand to capture the images. (i) Healthy right-sided optic nerve head acquired after placing the smartphone camera over the direct ophthalmoscope viewing aperture

Click here to view


In the second technique, the direct ophthalmoscope and the smartphone are used together to assess the optic disc and macular pathology. The smartphone camera is fixed directly onto the direct ophthalmoscope eye aperture (with glue or tape) [Figure 1]h and the scope is slowly moved toward the patient's eye. Even though it is possible to appreciate the findings in un-dilated pupil, dilation is necessary to facilitate capturing the images with ease [Figure 1]i.


  Discussion Top


Clinical assessment of the optic disc using the smartphone and an adapter has been noted in few observations.[1],[2],[3],[4] Our technique is both simple and cost-effective and in addition, the technique can be disseminated to medical colleagues from other specialties to document fundus findings in cases where immediate assessment by an ophthalmologist is not possible.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Bastawrous A, Giardini ME, Bolster NM, Peto T, Shah N, Livingstone IA, et al. Clinical validation of a smartphone-based adapter for optic disc imaging in Kenya. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134:151-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Russo A, Morescalchi F, Costagliola C, Delcassi L, Semeraro F. A novel device to exploit the smartphone camera for fundus photography. J Ophthalmol 2015;2015:823139.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rajalakshmi R, Arulmalar S, Usha M, Prathiba V, Kareemuddin KS, Anjana RM, et al. Validation of smartphone based retinal photography for diabetic retinopathy screening. PLoS One 2015;10:e0138285.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nazari Khanamiri H, Nakatsuka A, El-Annan J. Smartphone fundus photography. J Vis Exp 2017;6:55958.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Discussion
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1044    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded219    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal