Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 2832
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

   Table of Contents      
CONSENSUS CRITERIA
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 2483-2485

Guidelines for the management of ocular trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic


1 Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, Wadala, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, Wadala, Mumbai; Ophthalmic Plastic and Ocular Oncology Services, Advanced Eye Hospital and Institute, A Unit of Dr. Agarwal's Eye Hospitals, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Orbit, Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ophthalmic Oncology Service, Manipal Hospital, HAL Airport Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, National University of Singapore, Singapore
5 Bapaye Eye Hospital, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
6 Mukherjee Eye Klinik, President, Ocular Trauma Society of India, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
7 Ratan Jyoti Netralaya Opthalmic, Institute and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
8 President, All India Ophthalmological Society, Chairman, Centre for Sight, Madhya Pradesh, India
9 Secretary, All India Ophthalmological Society, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of MedicalSciences, Madhya Pradesh, India
10 Treasurer, All India Ophthalmological Society, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission09-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance18-Sep-2020
Date of Web Publication26-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Akshay Gopinathan Nair
Ophthalmic Plastic and Ocular Oncology Services, Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, Wadala, Mumbai - 400 031, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1892_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


As the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, India is recording a very high number of new cases daily; even as the country prepares to gradually “unlock”, after months of lockdown. While elective eye surgeries such as uncomplicated cataract surgeries, blepharoplasty and eyelid procedures and refractive surgeries can be planned at a later date; emergency cases pertaining to ocular trauma cannot be deferred. This manuscript gives a brief overview of the general guidelines for the management of ocular trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Blunt trauma, coronavirus, ophthalmic trauma, traumatic cataract


How to cite this article:
Natarajan S, Nair AG, Hegde R, Sundar G, Bapaye MM, Mukherjee G, Bhasin P, Sachdev MS, Sharma N, Sinha R, AIOS Writing Group. Guidelines for the management of ocular trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:2483-5

How to cite this URL:
Natarajan S, Nair AG, Hegde R, Sundar G, Bapaye MM, Mukherjee G, Bhasin P, Sachdev MS, Sharma N, Sinha R, AIOS Writing Group. Guidelines for the management of ocular trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 24];68:2483-5. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2020/68/11/2483/299035

AIOS Writing Committee: Alok Sen, Ashok Kumar Grover, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Jeevan S. Titiyal, Jayanta Kumar Das, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Kim Ramasamy, J K S Parihar, Mehul Shah, O P Agrawal, Prashant Bawankule, Rajiv Raman, Ruchir Mehta, Rupesh Agrawal, Sanjiv Mohan, Shakeen Singh , Thirumalesh M.B., Usha Kim, Vinod Kumar Baranwal




Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Looking ahead, the COVID-19 pandemic has possibly changed the way medicine would be practiced in the foreseeable future.[1],[2]

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected ocular trauma in multiple ways. In a comparative study where Pellegrini et al., studied the trends of ocular trauma during the pandemic in Italy; they found a striking 68.4% decrease in the number of eye injuries seen compared to the same time period of the previous year. They hypothesized that behavioral changes during the quarantine could be associated with lower risk of trauma. The decreases of sport injuries and of injuries in children during school closure seem to support this hypothesis.[3] On the other hand, another report from the United Kingdom noted that there was a rise in traumatic ocular injuries occurring at home, (when compared to the same time duration of the previous year) The activities that the patients were involved in were gardening, do-it-yourself/home improvement projects and exercise at home (skipping rope and resistance elastic bands injuries).[4] These reports and others have shown that the frequency and nature of accidents leading to serious ocular trauma have been affected by the on-going pandemic.[5]

Globally, elective surgeries have been deferred.[1] However, ocular trauma in any form is always an emergency. While attending to ocular trauma cannot be deferred, there are a few changes that have to incorporated into our practices, specifically while treating ocular trauma. Ophthalmologists are at a particularly high risk when it comes to the likelihood of contracting COVID-19 from patients given the proximity of examination and the exposure to mucosal surfaces.[6]

The guidelines presented in this document focus only on surgical procedures and subsequent follow-up visits and are based on the available literature on COVID-19, guidelines issued by other societies and other branches of medicine. The necessary precautions to be followed as a routine in the outpatient department have been elaborately discussed by Sengupta et al.[7] Surgical procedures addressing ocular trauma cannot be deferred, however, the measures enlisted in this document can be incorporated in real life to ensure maximum protection and to minimize the transmission of COVID-19.


  Preoperative Assessment Top


When evaluating a case of ocular trauma, all precautions must be taken, assuming that the patient is a case of COVID-19. This would involve having basic protective gear including but not limited to the facemask, face shield and gloves. In addition to ophthalmic history and assessment, a general medical history would also have to be elicited using the COVID-19 questionnaire as shown by Ali et al.[1] If the patient has symptoms strongly suggestive of COVID-19, they should be screened for COVID-19, keeping in mind local municipal and state guidelines for testing; or carry out any further treatment at a higher center that is equipped to handle cases of COVID-19. Patients of ocular trauma who have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 should also have an urgent physician's consult and if required, further imaging to rule out COVID-19. In case surgery has to be taken up earlier or while awaiting the results of COVID-19 testing, it must be ensured that the entire medical, paramedical and anesthesia teams should be appropriately prepared with PPE, with assumption that the patient is seropositive for COVID-19.

Often times, ocular trauma is seen in the setting of pan-facial trauma. In such cases, examination of patients with injuries that may involve the mucosal surfaces of the head/face, nose, and pharynx must be considered to be aerosol-generating, and therefore all appropriate institutional PPE guidelines should be followed. The recommended procedural management would require N95 masks, eye protection, gown, and gloves.[8]

It is also recommended that any surgical procedure on a previously diagnosed case of COVID-19 be done in a hospital that has dedicated COVID-19 care facilities including inpatient care, operating room and intensive care facilities for COVID-19 patients. When a surgical intervention is planned, it must be as expeditious as possible, even if these are not the clinical decisions that would be chosen under more typical circumstances. Effort must be made to limit the number of providers involved in the patient care. No observers and non-essential staff should be involved in the entire process. These attempts are aimed at reducing the overall patient time in the hospital, reduce the number of providers exposed to the patient, and reduce the utilization of operating room resources which are very critical.[8]


  Basic Guidelines for Ocular Trauma Surgery during the Covid-19 Pandemic Top


  1. Avoid general anaesthesia (intubation, extubation) whenever possible
  2. PPE for all medical and non-medical personnel as per the Government of India guidelines dated 1st May 2020
  3. Only the essential anaesthetic, surgical and allied health staff should be present inside the operating room.
  4. Surgeon and surgical assistants should be outside the operating room during intubation and extubation
  5. Use of aerosol protection devices is advisable during intubation and extubation to limit the spread of aerosols away from the patient.
  6. Avoid monopolar cautery for cutting/coagulation.
  7. Use a cutting blade for skin and mucosal incisions whenever possible.
  8. Use bipolar cautery for haemostasis only in the lowest power setting.
  9. Practise minimal handling of tissues especially mucosal surfaces such as conjunctiva
  10. Avoid repeated irrigation and suctioning of tissues while dealing with orbital trauma
  11. In the case of orbital fractures, avoid/minimize drills, oscillating osteotomes and other powered instruments which are aerosol-generating.
  12. Consider closed reduction if the fracture is stable for zygomatico-maxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. Avoid intra-oral incision, if two-point fixation (rim and ZF) is sufficient for stabilization.
  13. Pole to pole surgeries (multi-speciality surgery) should be done in the same setting – to avoid repeated exposure to anesthesia.
  14. If a planned second surgery is to be done, it should be at least 14 days after the primary procedure and treat the case as a new patient in terms of the pre-operative workup.



  Risk Stratification for Ocular Trauma Surgery Top


This classification [Table 1] offers a rough guide but is not exhaustive and may be modified based on individual/institutional discretion on a case-to-case basis.[9]
Table 1: Risk stratification for ocular trauma surgery

Click here to view


Level A – Emergency/Urgency––The need to operate within 4–72 h.

Level B - Can be deferred for up to 4–6 weeks with or without conservative management.

Level C – Can be deferred beyond 3 months without adversely affecting the outcomes.


  Follow-Up Top


Routine follow-up on post-operative day 1 can be conducted by the operating surgeon as before. Subsequent follow-ups at day 3 and day 7 post-operatively need to be scheduled at the discretion of the operating surgeon. It is advisable that as few post-op visits as possible, without compromising on the outcome of the treatment. The operating surgeon may defer/reschedule the post-op follow-up visits taking into consideration the type of surgery, the type of intraocular foreign body (organic vs. inorganic) and the presence of complaints. Telemedicine has been used effectively in ophthalmology for a wide variety of circumstances and conditions and therefore should be utilized effectively.[10] Engaging the referring surgeon (if any) for interim visits may be useful in minimizing visits to the hospital.

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the practice patterns in ophthalmology.[11] Ocular emergencies cannot be deferred indefinitely and need to be tackled immediately in most cases. These guidelines will serve as a good resource such that ophthalmologists can resume offering healthcare services to patients in need of emergent care without compromising on safety; their own and the patients'.


  Disclaimer Top


The authors of this document would like to declare that these guidelines are based on the information issued by various relevant organizations, and State and Central Governments as on the date of their release. These guidelines are provided for informational and educational purposes only. Adherence to any recommendations included in this document may not ensure a successful outcome in every situation. Furthermore, the recommendations contained in this document should not be interpreted as setting a standard of care or be deemed inclusive of all proper methods of care nor exclusive of other methods of care reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. These guidelines reflect the best available information at the time the document was prepared. The results of future studies may require revisions to the recommendations to reflect new data. The guidelines do not replace or override existing national/regional/local statutory requirements. The guidelines are to be tempered with the regional, local and individual hospital guidelines and expertise. The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific therapy must be made by the physician and the patient considering all the circumstances presented by the individual patient, and the known variability and biological behavior of the medical condition. This expert panel does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the guidance and assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of this guidance or for any errors or omissions. We will not be a party to/for medico legal implications arising out of following or not following these recommendations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ali MJ, Hegde R, Nair AG, Bajaj MS, Betharia SM, Bhattacharjee K, et al. All India ophthalmological society - Oculoplastics association of India consensus statement on preferred practices in oculoplasty and lacrimal surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:974-80.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
2.
Nair AG, Gandhi RA, Natarajan S. Effect of COVID-19 related lockdown on ophthalmic practice and patient care in India: Results of a survey. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:725-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Pellegrini M, Roda M, Geronimo ND, Lupardi E, Giannaccare G, Schiavi C. Changing trends of ocular trauma in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Eye (Lond) 2020;34:1248-1250.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hamroush A, Qureshi M, Shah S. Increased risk of ocular injury seen during lockdown due to COVID-19. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2020;43:216.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bapaye MM, Nair AG, Mangulkar PP, Bapaye CM, Bapaye MM. Resurgence of “bow and arrow” related ocular trauma: Collateral damage arising from COVID-19 lockdown in India? Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:1222-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
6.
Shetty R, D'Souza S, Lalgudi VG. What ophthalmologists should know about conjunctivitis in the COVID-19 pandemic? Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:683-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
7.
Sengupta S, Honavar SG, Sachdev MS, Sharma N, Kumar A, Ram J, et al. Writing committee on behalf of the All India ophthalmological society-Indian Journal of ophthalmology expert group for COVID-19 practice guidelines. All India ophthalmological society – Indian Journal of Ophthalmology consensus statement on preferred practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:711-24.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
8.
Edwards SP, Kasten S, Nelson C, Elner V, McKean E. Maxillofacial trauma management during COVID-19: Multidisciplinary recommendations. Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2020;22:157-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hegde R, Sundar G. Guidelines for the Oculoplastic and Ophthalmic Trauma Surgeon during the COVID-19 era – An APOTS and APSOPRS Document. Available from: https://apsoprs.org/news/guidelines-for-the-oculoplastic-and-ophthalmic-trauma-surgeon-during-the-covid-19-era. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Simon DP, Thach AB, Bower KS. Teleophthalmology in the evaluation of ocular trauma. Mil Med 2003;168:205-11.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Mishra D, Nair AG, Gandhi RA, Gogate PJ, Mathur S, Bhushan P, et al. The impact of COVID-19 related lockdown on ophthalmology training programs in India – Outcomes of a survey. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:999-1004.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Preoperative Ass...
Basic Guidelines...
Risk Stratificat...
Follow-Up
Disclaimer
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed498    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded86    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal