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   Table of Contents      
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 199-200

Choroidal caverns in pachychoroid neovasculopathy

Department of Vitreoretina, M M Joshi Eye Institute, Hubballi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission26-Feb-2019
Date of Acceptance15-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication19-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Apoorva Ayachit
Department of Vitreoretina, M M Joshi Eye Institute, Hubballi - 580 021, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_395_19

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Keywords: Choroidal caverns, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography angiography, pachychoroid

How to cite this article:
Ayachit A, Joshi S, Kathyayini S V, Ayachit G. Choroidal caverns in pachychoroid neovasculopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:199-200

How to cite this URL:
Ayachit A, Joshi S, Kathyayini S V, Ayachit G. Choroidal caverns in pachychoroid neovasculopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 31];68:199-200. Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2020/68/1/199/273241

A 54-year-old gentleman being treated for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in his right eye, came to us for a regular follow up. Enhanced depth optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) showed subretinal fluid (SRF) and a hyperreflective double layer sign (DLS) [Figure 1]. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) [Figure 1] optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) [Figure 2], indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) [Figure 3] and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were done. Two choroidal caverns were noted on EDI-OCT [Figure 3]. Both caverns were angular and found in the outer choroidal layers. These caverns did not correspond to a choroidal vessel on the ICGA and the choroidal slab on OCT-A [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. This patient received an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in the right eye and the SRF resolved in 4 weeks.
Figure 1: Combined autofluorescence (AF) + EDI- OCT image of the right eye. Orange arrow showing the hyporeflective choroidal cavern. Overlying serous macular detachment noted. AF shows the typical descending hyperAF tract of central serous chorioretinopathy

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Figure 2: Orange arrow showing the pachychoroid neovasculopathy network in the manually segmented sub- RPE slab. This corresponded to the double layer sign on OCT

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Figure 3: ICGA + OCT image. Line scan passing through both the caverns (yellow arrows on the ICGA as well as OCT images). Both caverns noted as dark areas on ICGA showing absence of choroidal vessels in that area

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Figure 4: Yellow circles showing the dark areas on enface OCT (top left), OCTA (top right) in the choroidal slabs corresponding to the choroidal cavern on the OCT (bottom right)

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  Discussion Top

Sakurada et al. have found choroidal caverns in 52% of eyes with pachychoroid disease, especially in areas of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on ICGA. They hypothesized that caverns represent loss of choroidal tissue associated with increased choroidal thickness.[1] Querques et al. in the first paper on caverns suggested that these may be due to vessel sclerosis and atrophy in age related macular degeneration.[2] It is therefore interesting to note that caverns have been shown to occur in dry AMD (thin choroid) as well as pachychoroid. Subsequently, Carnevali et al. have demonstrated a choroidal cavern in a case of Best vitelliform dystrophy as well.[3] Our case shows typical choroidal caverns on multimodal imaging. It is of interest that these may be mistaken for dilated choroidal vessels. Their typical features of angularity, internal hyporeflectivity and that they don't correspond to a choroidal vessel on angiography helps distinguish between the two structural findings on EDI- OCT.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Sakurada Y, Leong B, Parikh R, Fragiotta S, Freund K. Association between choroidal caverns and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability in eyes with pachychoroid diseases. Retina 2018;38:1977-83.  Back to cited text no. 1
Corbelli E, Sacconi R, De Vitis L, Carnevali A, Rabiolo A, Querques L, et al. Choroidal round hyporeflectivities in geographic atrophy. PLoS One 2016;11:e0166968.  Back to cited text no. 2
Carnevali A, Sacconi R, Corbelli E, Querques L, Bandello F, Querques G. Choroidal caverns: A previously unreported optical coherence tomography finding in best vitelliform dystrophy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018;49:284-7.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]


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