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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 130-134

Surgical outcomes and occurrence of associated vertical strabismus during a 10-year follow-up in patients with infantile esotropia


1 Department of Ophthalmology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea
3 Nune Eye Hospital, Daegu, South Korea

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Myung Mi Kim
Nune Eye Hospital, #2179 Dalgubeol-daero, Jung-gu, Daegu
South Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2237_19

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Purpose: Authors analyzed long-term surgical outcomes of infantile esotropia and the occurrence of associated strabismus, inferior oblique overaction (IOOA), and dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). Clinical factors related to the occurrence of IOOA and DVD in patients with infantile esotropia were also evaluated. Methods: Medical records of patients with infantile esotropia, who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Included patients were followed for at least 10 years. The incidence and age at development of IOOA and DVD were analyzed. To evaluate predisposing factors for developing IOOA or DVD, patients were divided into two groups: those with infantile esotropia only (group A) and those who developed IOOA or DVD (group B). Results: A total of 122 patients were enrolled and mean follow-up period was 16.0 years (range: 10–32 years). The mean number of surgeries was 1.7 (range: 1–5), and 64 (52.5%) patients achieved optimal horizontal alignment (esotropia <10 prism diopters [PD] and orthotropia). Fifty (41.0%) patients developed IOOA at a median age of 3 years (range: 1–21 years); 54 (44.3%) developed DVD at a median age of 5 years (range: 1–25 years). Patients in group B underwent more horizontal surgeries than those in group A (P = 0.028), and favorable surgical outcomes between the two groups were not different at final visit. There were no other significant differences in clinical factors between the two groups. Conclusion: Approximately, 52.5% of patients achieved favorable surgical outcomes through 1.7 surgeries during the 10-year follow-up period. DVD tended to develop at a later age than IOOA, and in some cases, up to 20 years after diagnosis of infantile esotropia. To achieve favorable horizontal alignment at final visit, patients with associated vertical strabismus underwent more horizontal muscle surgeries than patients with infantile esotropia only. The presence of IOOA/DVD may affect horizontal alignment outcomes.


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