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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 598-602

Is 20/20 visual outcome a reality in rubella cataract? - Prognostic factors in children with cataract associated with congenital rubella syndrome

Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, M M Joshi Eye Institute, Hubli, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepti Joshi
M M Joshi Eye Institute, Gokul Road, Hosur, Hubli - 580 021, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_903_20

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Purpose: The aim of this study ws to evaluate prognostic factors associated with final visual outcome in patients with congenital cataract associated with congenital rubella syndrome. Methods: A prospective interventional analysis of preoperative systemic and ocular features of 56 eyes of 28 seropositive infants of less than 12 months presenting to us with bilateral cataract was performed. All infants were surgically treated with cataract extraction, posterior capsulorhexis, and anterior vitrectomy followed by visual rehabilitation. Intraocular lens implantation was done in children after 2 years of age. Outcome data were collected till children reached the fifth chronological age. Chi-square test was used as a test of significance for qualitative data. Results: Of the 56 eyes, 44.6% eyes had vision better than 20/60. Important preoperative factors related to poor visual prognosis were morphology of cataract (P = 0.004), microphthalmos (P < 0.001), features suggestive of iris hypoplasia (P < 0.001), optic atrophy (P < 0.001), nystagmus (P = 0.02), and associated neurological anomalies (P = 0.0023). We found no significant statistical association between postoperative visual outcome and isolated rubella retinopathy, cloudy cornea, cardiological, and ontological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cataract associated with rubella is a common cause of congenital cataract in developing countries. Determining prognostic factors helps us in parent counseling and planning treatment protocols. Nevertheless, early detection and treatment with adequate multidisciplinary approach remains priority for improving long-term visual outcomes.

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