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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 617-622

Severe ocular and adnexal complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A report of 29 eyes

1 Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 The Cornea Institute, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreo-Retinal Diseases, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tarjani Vivek Dave
L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills Road No. 2, Hyderabad - 500 034, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1588_20

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Purpose: To describe a series of sight-threatening ocular and adnexal involvement associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and their treatment options. Methods: Retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series. Medical records of patients who presented with ocular symptoms attributed to dengue hemorrhagic fever were reviewed. Demography, presenting features, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Outcome measures assessed included globe salvage, vision salvage, and visual improvement. The outcome was deemed as favorable if vision salvage was possible and unfavorable if the vision was lost. Results: Twenty-nine eyes of 23 patients were included. Bilateral ocular involvement was seen in 6 (26%) patients. The mean age was 37.62 ± 18.68 years (range: 14 to 81 years). Coexistent diabetes mellitus and enteric fever were present in three patients. History of blood transfusion was present in nine (40%) and thrombocytopenia in eight (35%) patients at the time of presentation with ocular complaints. Presenting features included endophthalmitis in 11 (38%), panophthalmitis in 10 (35%), orbital cellulitis with panophthalmitis in four (14%), isolated corneal or scleral melt in three (10%), and orbital hemorrhage with panophthalmitis in one (3%) patient. Globe salvage was achieved in 21/29 eyes (72.4%), vision salvage in 6/29 eyes (20.68%), and improvement in visual acuity was noted in 5/29 eyes (17.24%). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant effect of any clinical-microbiological factors on globe salvage, vision salvage, and visual improvement. However, visual improvement and globe salvage were possible in eyes that underwent early endoscopic vitrectomy. Conclusion: Dengue fever can present with sight-threatening ocular and adnexal inflammation resulting in endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, orbital cellulitis, corneal and scleral melt, and orbital hemorrhage. Early vitrectomy may improve vision and globe salvage in cases with significant vitritis.

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