Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

: 1970  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 183--184

Prospects of goswami's theory for false projection and diplopia screen

VN Prasad 
 G. S. V. M. Medical College, Kanpur, India

Correspondence Address:
V N Prasad
G. S. V. M. Medical College, Kanpur

How to cite this article:
Prasad V N. Prospects of goswami's theory for false projection and diplopia screen.Indian J Ophthalmol 1970;18:183-184

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Prasad V N. Prospects of goswami's theory for false projection and diplopia screen. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1970 [cited 2021 Aug 6 ];18:183-184
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The false projection in the paralytic squinting eye is a well established fact. But since Gosswami[3] has propounded a new theory of false projection by the help of his screen - Goswam [1],[2] - it has opened a new chapter in false pro­icction. Uptil now it has been our con­ception that the master eye does not have any false projection in cases of paralytic squint, but by the help of photographs [2] and diagrams [3] the false projection in the master eye has been demonstrated and explained.

The explanation of Goswami's theory for false projection in the master eye is that the synergistic muscles in the master eye (in relation to the paralytic muscle of the squinting eye) becomes overactive to compensate the work of the squinting eye. This simultaneous overaction of the master eye gives a false projection in this eye too. On Goswami screen without any doubt this phenomenon of false projection in both the eyes can be demonstrated.

It is a pity why the doubts expressed by Goswami[1] in the existing method of diplopia charting were not taken into account uptil now and thus this direction to remove these doubts. in the existing method of the diplopia The doubts expressed were:

1. Is one image of diplopia forming at the place where the object is situated ; or both are forming somewhere else from the actual position of the object?

2. Actually how far apart are the two images of diplopia forming?

3. When the images are not at the sane level, then in that case what is the accurate level of the images?

4. If any image is inclined then to what extent does it so in relation to the other image?

Naturally to overcome these doubts one has to think over some way to remove these lacunae. The excellent way- to remove these lacunae is the introduction of graduated lines over the charting as done in Goswami Screen. For this purpose, in short, the following screen and technique was dcveloped [1],[2],[3] .

There is one black screen of the size -5 x 75 c.m. divided into nine equal quadrants of size 25 X 25 c.m. each, by vertical and horizontal lines of the black thread. These quadrants are fur­ther divided by vertical and horizontal lines of black thread into the size of 5 x 5 c.m. each.

There is a white shining object of the size 8x 1 c.m. which can be hooked at in the centre of each of the nine quadrants turn by turn.

There are two pointers, one for right hand having red indicator of the size 8 x 1 c.m. and other having green indi­cator of the same size for the left hand. These indicators are separately attached to black handles at the angle of 110 degrees. The whole unit is called the pointer.

Patient wearing diplopia goggles - red before right eye and green before left eye - is made to sit on a revolving stool in such a way that his eyes should come at the level of the centre of the screen at a distance of 75 c.m. in front of it by the help of a head rest.

The object is hooked in the centre of each quadrant turn by turn. Patient is allowed to move his eyes, but not his head, in the direction of the object. If he is having diplopia he is asked to put red indicator on the red image and the green indicator on the green image in such a way that they cover the corres­ponding images completely. This is charted on a graph paper graduated in the same way as on the screen by red and green pencils.

 Observations & Discussions

Since July 1967 I am collecting cases of paralytic squint for diplopia chart­ing. Upto June 1969 I could manage to examine 72 cases of paralytic squint.

The methodology is very easy and accurate. The addition of head and chin rest as suggested [4] may be excluded, when only diplopia charting is done; even then the results are very accurate. It is not difficult to teach the patient that he has to cover the red image by his right hand indicator and the green image by his left hand indicator, while keeping his head fixed. Thus Goswami's Screen is definitely an improvement on the existing methodology of diplopia charting because

1. It is very accurate ;

2. It is handy ;

3. It is easy to chart on paper

4. The demonstration of false projec­tion in the master eye opens a new chapter for investigation.

False projection in the master eye is no more a presumption, but a fact which can be explained and demonstra­ted by the help of this new screen. The amount of this false projection and the tone of the paralysed muscle [4] are in correlation, it seems from the explana­tion. A question may however be asked whether this phenomenon has any practical value in treatment.


1Goswami, A. P.: Diplopia Charting - A. New Technique. Medical Digest. 34 : 283­-285. 1966.
2Goswami, A. P.: Practical Utility of New Technique in charting the Diplopia. In­dian Journal of Orthoptics & Pleoptics. 3 : 18-22. 1966.
3Goswami, A. P.: A theory of False Pro­jection. Acta Ophthalmologica. 45 : 699-702. 1967.
4Goswami, A. P.: Measurement of the False Projection and the Tone of the Muscle by the New Screen. Indian Jour­nal of Orthoptics and Pleoptics. 4 : 49-51. 1967.