Year : 1979 | Volume
: 27 | Issue : 3 | Page : 33--34
Myopia and blood groups
LB Ved, PS Gokhale, VG Ranade
B.J. Medical College, Pune, India
L B Ved
B.J. Medical College, Pune
|How to cite this article:|
Ved L B, Gokhale P S, Ranade V G. Myopia and blood groups.Indian J Ophthalmol 1979;27:33-34
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Ved L B, Gokhale P S, Ranade V G. Myopia and blood groups. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1979 [cited 2021 Jun 16 ];27:33-34
Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1979/27/3/33/31222
The association of blood groups in some diseases has been documented by different workers. Association between cancer stomach and blood group A, peptic ulcer and blood group O, has been stressed. While certain diseases like diabetes mellitus are familial, there is no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution among diabetics and controls. Myopia, a common refractive error, occurs with some familial tendency and is strongly suggestive of genetic causation. The present study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the correlation if any, between myopia and ABO blood groups as ABO blood group has a genetic basis.
Material And methods
626 students admitted to the 1st M.B.B.S. Class, in the age group of 17/19 yrs were screened, as myopia manifested more in adolescence. The family history of myopia was traced. Each student was examined for myopia with special reference to the degree and duration of this condition. Blood groups were determined by the standard tile method: using red cell suspension in 0.9% saline and matching it against anti A and anti B sera.
The results were tabulated and statistically analysed to find out the relationship between myopia and distribution of A, B, 0 and AB groups, [Table 1].
General distribution of blood groups was evaluated in 626 volunteers. Commonest was found to be B group (32.27%) and followed by 'O' Group. (30.19%). This distribution compares favourable with those of Dutta and Mathew and Phadke and Phadke.
O group shows slight predominance of myopia (32.27%) while rest of the groups have similar percentage distribution. Overall incidence of myopia is 28.11%. In order to analyse the data further ABO distribution in myopics and emmetropics was studied. It can be concluded that statistically there is no significant difference in frequency of distribution of ABO groups in myopics and emmetropics. (P: 0.50). This suggests that though both ABO group system and myopia have a genetic basis, the two genes move independently.
The evidence for genetic character of refraction comes from two sources; study of twins and study on families.
Vorpio and his associates studied four generations in 170 subjects in Finland. They noted that in case of a mother who had a myopia of 5 D. in the next generation 3 out of 14, in the next 6 out of 42, and in the next 15 out of 50 showed a slight degree of myopia on reaching 15 yrs. and over. Therefore, there is a substantial degree of correlation for parent/offspring. The study of Wold on myopia families suggested that refraction as a whole or its components are genetically determined. He suggested that low degree of myopia is probably autosomally dominant. Inheritance of ABO blood group system has been proved beyond doubt. The attempt to correlate ABO system and incidence of myopia has not revealed any such relationship. It can therefore, be concluded that the genes are not related or linked with each other. Sorsby suggests that refraction stature is commonly inherited in a polygenic manner and only in few exceptional cases monofactorial inheritance may apply positively. It is therefore, no wonder that the study has not revealed any correlation between ABO system and myopia.
626 student volunteers were investigated for myopia and its possible relationship with ABO blood group. The frequency distribution of various blood groups is not significantly different in myopics and emetropics. It can therefore be concluded that there is no specific blood group in ABO system which makes the individual more susceptible to myopia.
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