Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

: 1979  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 33--34

Myopia and blood groups

LB Ved, PS Gokhale, VG Ranade 
 B.J. Medical College, Pune, India

Correspondence Address:
L B Ved
B.J. Medical College, Pune

How to cite this article:
Ved L B, Gokhale P S, Ranade V G. Myopia and blood groups.Indian J Ophthalmol 1979;27:33-34

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Ved L B, Gokhale P S, Ranade V G. Myopia and blood groups. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1979 [cited 2021 Apr 11 ];27:33-34
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Full Text

The association of blood groups in some diseases has been documented by different workers. Association between cancer stomach and blood group A[1], peptic ulcer and blood group O[2], has been stressed. While certain diseases like diabetes mellitus are familial, there is no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution among diabetics and controls[7]. Myopia, a common refractive error, occurs with some familial tendency and is strongly suggestive of genetic causation[6]. The present study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the correlation if any, between myopia and ABO blood groups as ABO blood group has a genetic basis.

 Material And methods

626 students admitted to the 1st M.B.B.S. Class, in the age group of 17/19 yrs were screened, as myopia manifested more in adolescence. The family history of myopia was traced. Each student was examined for myopia with special reference to the degree and duration of this condition. Blood groups were determined by the standard tile method: using red cell suspension in 0.9% saline and matching it against anti A and anti B sera.

The results were tabulated and statistically analysed to find out the relationship between myopia and distri­bution of A, B, 0 and AB groups, [Table 1].


General distribution of blood groups was evaluated in 626 volunteers. Commonest was found to be B group (32.27%) and followed by 'O' Group. (30.19%). This distribution com­pares favourable with those of Dutta and Mathew[4] and Phadke and Phadke[5].

O group shows slight predominance of myopia (32.27%) while rest of the groups have similar percentage distribution. Overall incid­ence of myopia is 28.11%. In order to analyse the data further ABO distribution in myopics and emmetropics was studied. It can be con­cluded that statistically there is no significant difference in frequency of distribution of ABO groups in myopics and emmetropics. (P: 0.50). This suggests that though both ABO group system and myopia have a genetic basis, the two genes move independently.

The evidence for genetic character of refraction comes from two sources[6]; study of twins and study on families.

Vorpio and his associates studied four generations in 170 subjects in Finland[8]. They noted that in case of a mother who had a myopia of 5 D. in the next generation 3 out of 14, in the next 6 out of 42, and in the next 15 out of 50 showed a slight degree of myopia on reaching 15 yrs. and over. Therefore, there is a substantial degree of correlation for parent/off­spring. The study of Wold[9] on myopia families suggested that refraction as a whole or its com­ponents are genetically determined. He suggested that low degree of myopia is probably autosom­ally dominant. Inheritance of ABO blood group system has been proved beyond doubt. The attempt to correlate ABO system and incidence of myopia has not revealed any such relation­ship. It can therefore, be concluded that the genes are not related or linked with each other. Sorsby[6] suggests that refraction stature is com­monly inherited in a polygenic manner and only in few exceptional cases monofactorial inheri­tance may apply positively. It is therefore, no wonder that the study has not revealed any correlation between ABO system and myopia.


626 student volunteers were investigated for myopia and its possible relationship with ABO blood group. The frequency distribution of various blood groups is not significantly different in myopics and emetropics. It can therefore be concluded that there is no specific blood group in ABO system which makes the individual more susceptible to myopia.


1Aird I. Bental H.H. and Roberts, 1953, Brit. Med. Jour., 1, 99.
2Aird I. Bental, 1954, Brit. Med. Jour., 2, 315.
3Campbell E.J.M., Hickinson C.J. and J.D.H. Slater, 1970, Clinical Physiology IIIrd Edn. 574 (Blackwell Scientific Publications, Great Britain).
4Dutta and Mathew 1966, Quoted in M.J. W.I., 7, 14. 1974.
5Phadke S.A. And Phadke A.R., 1974, M.J. W.I., 7, 14.
6Sorsby Arnold, 1972, Modern Ophthalmology Vol. 3 2nd Edn. Page 25/27. Butterworth and Co. Great Britain.
7Vad B.G., 1966, Maharashtra Med. Jour., 12, 841.
8Vorpio, 1966, As quoted by Sorsby Arnold (1974). Modern Ophthalmology Vol. : 3, 2nd Edn. Page: 25/27. Butterworth and Co. Great Britain.
9Wold, 1949, As quoted by Sorsby Arnold (1974) Modern Ophthalmology Vol. : 3 Page : 25/27. Butterworth and Co., Great Britain.