Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

: 1983  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 813--815

Prevention of school myopia

Tikasi Sato 
 President of International Society of Myopia Research , Yolohama, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Tikasi Sato
President of International Society of Myopia Research , Yolohama

How to cite this article:
Sato T. Prevention of school myopia.Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:813-815

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Sato T. Prevention of school myopia. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2021 Jun 14 ];31:813-815
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Full Text

The prevention of school myopia would become sure if the mechanism of school myopia clear. I researched into this problem since 1939 and got the result as follows:

As there is no sufficient time I am going to show mostly in articles. The detailes are written in original reports.

The object

School myopia=weak myopia strong myopia

Sato's theory=Jager's theory Heredity: axial length Environment: lenticular

emmetropization by accommodation

More accommodation- school myopia (near work)

Existence and importance of school myopia

Tokyo University: farm=60%: 12% Restriction of near work-> % decrease to 2/3 1/2

Easy to cause school myopia in monkeys by accommodation (Sato, Young).

Easy to cause school myopia in Caucasian by learning of Chinese characters. Epidemy of school myopia in Eskimos.

Parents: children=O 2%:65 88%

Development of Sato's theory

Distribution curve of phoria [Figure 1][Figure 2] before and after monocular prolonged


Refractive curve [Figure 3][Figure 4][Figure 5] atropinzed->cliniary tonus'spasm apahakic-'organic adaptive change

The bases for adaptive organic changes

Physical rule: histresis of elasticity of the crys­talline lens

Physiological rule: Functional hypertrophy or disuse atrophy of the ciliary muscle

Hypertrophy in direct proportion to accom­modation (histologically) Refractive power of lens in direct proportion to accommodation (biologically) Refractive index, surface curves of lens change remarkably in growth but the total ref­ractive power does not change.

Progress of development

Conscious adaptive organic

continuous - Tonus - change of

accommodation lens and muscle


Prevention of school myopia

Keep working distance more than 30 cm. Keep near work not continually. Improvement of complicated Chinese characters.

Above must be done for a long period between 3 20 years old.

of school myopia in Japan decreased to 2/ 3 1/2 by above.

Cure of school myopia

Combination with preventing procedures. Training to look distance and near alter­nately.

Use weak mydriatica before goind to bed. Above must be done until 20 years old.[5]


1Sato, T.: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Rfraktions­kurve, Acta Soc. Ophthalm. Jpn. 45: 2277-2291, 1941.
2Sato, T.: Acquired myopia. Proc. Ist internat. Conf. on Myopia, New York, 1964.
3Sato, T.: The causes and prevention of acquired myopia, pp. 1-244, Yokohama, Japan, 1957.
4Sato, T.: Summary and criticism of Sato's theory on school myopia. Proc. 2nd Internat. Conf. on Myopia, Yokohama, Japan, 1980.
5Sato, T.: Errors in the deduction that supports the axial theory explaining school myopia. Verification by means of mathematics, Acta Soc. Ophthalm. Jpn. 86: 2153-2157,1982.