Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

ARTICLES
Year
: 1983  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 857--859

Electrolyte pattern in experimental sugar cataracts in vitro


AG Chandorkar, MV Albal, PM Bulakh 
 Department of Pharmacology, Dr. VM Medical.College, Solapur, India

Correspondence Address:
A G Chandorkar
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. V.M. Medical College, Solapur 413 003, Maharashtra
India




How to cite this article:
Chandorkar A G, Albal M V, Bulakh P M. Electrolyte pattern in experimental sugar cataracts in vitro.Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:857-859


How to cite this URL:
Chandorkar A G, Albal M V, Bulakh P M. Electrolyte pattern in experimental sugar cataracts in vitro. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2021 Sep 25 ];31:857-859
Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1983/31/7/857/29686


Full Text

Diabetic patients specially with uncon­trolled diabetes develop many complications in the eye e.g. diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. Increased blood sugar levels for a considerable time are said to be responsible for the development of cataracts in such patients. `Sugar cataracts' like those in patients have been produced in galactosemic and diabetic rats in vivo. Therefore, we have investigated whether similar `sugar cataracts can be produced in lens culture in vitro and if so what would be the electrolyte pattern in these cataractous lenses.

 MATERIAL AND METHODS



Fresh goat lenses were exposed to varying concentrations of glucose and galactose in culture media using lens organ culture techni­que as described earlier.' Glucose or galac­tose was added to the culture media in such a way that it did not change the pH, volume, or the proportionate concentrations of the other constituents of the media. The concentrations used were those which caused an increase of 50, 100 and 200% over the normal. Thus pro­bably simulating an increase in blood sugar level in a diabetic patient reflected probably in the same proportions in ocular tissues.

Electrolytes were estimated at 24 hours with early cataractogenesis and at 72 hours when complete opacities developed.' Sodium and potassium were estimated by flame photometer, while chlorides were estimated by the titration method using diphenyl car­bazole indicator and the results were com­pared with those obtained with solution of known Cl -ion concentration in the 10% trichlor acetic acid. Magnesium was estimated by calorimetric method, using titan yollow indicator and calcium by titration method using calcium thymophthelein as an indicator, as described by Varley.[2] The results were compared with a simultaneously run control.

 OBSERVATIONS



Pretreatment with glucose and galactose hastened the development of intumescence with weight gain, opacity and early disruption of lens fibres as compared to the control by 12­24 hours which is consistent with our earlier morphological observations[1].

The electrolyte changes at 24 and 72 hours are shown in [Table 1][Table 2] respectively. It can be observed that intra-lenticular sodium concentration increased very significantly, while potassium, chlorides, calcium and magnesium chlorides, concentrations showed a small but significant decrease in lenses pretreated with either glucose or galac­tose as compared to control. Further, though pretreatment with either glucose or galactose did not show any significant qualitative change in electrolyte pattern, galactose pret­reatment did cause- a greater increase in sodium levels than seen with glucose-pretreat­ment. Varying the concentration of glucose or galactose to 100% or 200% over normal did not alter the electrolyte pattern significantly, however, all these pretreated lenses developed opacities and other morphological changes earlier as compared to the control. Thus it seems that pretreatment triggers off or hastens the cataractous process.

 DISCUSSION



It is obvious that increase in the concentra­tion of either glucose or galactose in the media fluid increased the susceptibility of the lens to develop opacities. In diabetes and in galac­tosemia, lenses convert the intralenticular glucose and galactose into sorbital and gala­citol in concentrations higher to the other sites in the body, leading to an osmotic overhydration and so giving rise to early cataracts. In lens culture also glucose and galactose is converted to its respective polyols which may attain a high intra-lenticular con­centrations. As these polyols are neither eff­iciently metabolised nor readily diffuse out in tissue media, they lead to hypertonicity followed by osmotic swelling, weight gain and subsequent opacity and lens fibre disruption. Pretreatment with glucose and galactose hence triggers off and hastens the catarac­togenic process probably through accumula­tion of sorbital or dulcitol. Lens culture thus can be utilized to study the effect of drugs like aldose-reductase inhibitors on sorbital pathway in vitro, and may help in understanding the mechanism of development of `Sugar Cataract'.

 SUMMARY



Alterations in electrolyte composition were studied in lens organ culture after pret­reatment with glucose and galactose. Elec­trolytes were estimated at 24 hours with early cataractogenesis and at 72 hours with com­plete development of opacities. Intralen­ticular sodium concentration increased signi­ficantly while potassium, chlorides, calcium and magnesium decreased. Pretreatment with glucose or galactose in varying concen­trations did not change this electrolyte altera­tion pattern, but triggered off the morpholo­gical and electrolyte changes earlier as com­pared to control. Lens culture can thus be used to study mechanism of development of sugar cataracts in vitro.

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



Authors are thankful to the Dean, Dr. V.M. Medical College, Solapur for the facilities given to undertake this work.

References

1Albal, M.V., Chandorkar, AG. and P.M. Bulakh. 1981, Ind. J. Ophthalmol., 29:147.
2Varlery, H, 1963, "Practical Clinical Biochemistry" 3rd Edition., William Heinemann., Medical Books. Ltd., London., P. 412, 409, 404, 364.