Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

ARTICLES
Year
: 1983  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 958--960

Immunologic aspacts of lens induced ocular reactions: Complement component profile


R Saraf, AK Gupta, GS Sarin 
 Guru Nanak Eye Centre. Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
A K Gupta
Guru Nanak Eye Centre. Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
India




How to cite this article:
Saraf R, Gupta A K, Sarin G S. Immunologic aspacts of lens induced ocular reactions: Complement component profile.Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:958-960


How to cite this URL:
Saraf R, Gupta A K, Sarin G S. Immunologic aspacts of lens induced ocular reactions: Complement component profile. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2021 Aug 3 ];31:958-960
Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1983/31/7/958/29716


Full Text

Ocular reactions induced by lens can be caused by either the toxic effects of the lenticular material or allergic phenomenon. The immune reaction which has been incriminated quite fre­quently in the causation of lens induced ocular reactions is antibody mediated hypersensitivity. There is a paucity of serum immunoglobulin profile in lens induced ocular reactions. Hence, the study was undertaken to find .out the varia­tion in the IgA, IgG and IgM levels in these patients.

 MATERIAL AND METHODS



The study was undertaken on 22 patients of lens induced ocular reaction and 35 healthy sub­jects. There were 28 males and 7 females in the control group of healthy subjects with the mean age 40.8 years. The lens induced ocular reaction group comprised24 males and9 females with the mean age 57.1 years. The healthy subjects in the control group had no history of ocular or sys­temic disease and had attended the Eye Centre mainly for refraction purpose.

The patients in the lens induced ocular reac­tion group were divided into the following subgroups :­

i) Phacotoxic uveitis ... 17 patients

ii) ii) Phacolytic glaucoma ... 11 patients

iii) iii) Endophthalmitis ... 5 patients

phacoanaphylactica

The patients of lens induced ocular reac­tion group were diagnosed by clinical history and ocular examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. The quantitative estimation of serum immuno­globulins, viz., IgA, IgG and IgM was done by single radial imunodiffusion technique of Mancini et al[1].

 OBSERVATIONS



Serum immunoglobulin in healthy sub­jects and patients of lens induced ocular reac­tion is given in [Table 1]. It is evident that there was a significant fall in the serum IgA level while the serum IgG and IgM remained unaltered. The serum immunoglobulin levels in the subgroup of phacotoxic uveitis is given in [Table 2]. It is seen from this table that IgA and IgG levels were significantly low while the serum IgM level was significantly high. In the subgroup of phacolytic glaucoma [Table 3] serum IgA was significantly low while the IgG and IgM levels were unchanged. In the subgroup of endophthalmitis phacoana­phylactica [Table 4] serum IgA level was significantly low and serum IgG level was low but not significant statistically and serum IgM level was significantly raised as com­pared to the respective level in healthy subjects.

 DISCUSSION



Since there is a paucity of data on the serum immunoglobulin levels in patients of lens induced ocular reactions, we have com­pared the data with the available data in uveitis. The serum IgA level in lens induced ocular reaction patients and their subgroups is much lower than the serum IgA level in healthy subjects. However, in uveitis serum IgA levels has been reported as normal or raised.

Serum IgG level was found to be unaltered in lens induced ocular reaction patients. Other workers[2],[3] have also reported normal serum IgG level in uveitis. In phacotoxic uveitis, however, the serum IgG level was significantly low.

Serum IgM level was also unaltered in the patients of lens induced ocular reactions. However, in the subgroup of phacotoxic uveitis and endophthalmitis phacoanaphy­lactica it was significantly high and was unaltered in phacolytic glaucoma. Raised serum IgM levels have been reported in uveitis. It may be that the high serum IgM level represent an increase in antibody to an unrecognised micro-organisms or other antigens[4]. sub It is possible as Aranson[5] has sug­gested that individuals with high level of IgM are more susceptible to uveitis after exposure to lens antigens. It is well known in the course of immunisation to a variety of antigen that serum IgM antibodies are preferentially raised early in the response[6]. This may also explain in part the raised serum IgM level in the two subgroups of lens induced ocular reactions.

The above data suggests humoral immune phenomenon may be involved in lens induced ocular reactions.

 SUMMARY



Sixty eight subjects, including 35 healthy subjects and 33 patients of lens induced ocular reactions were studied for serum immunoglobulins by single radial immuno­diffusion technique. Serum IgA levels were found to be significantly low in lens induced ocular reaction patients while there was no significant alteration in serum IgG and IgM. Similar pattern was noted in the subgroup of phacolytic glaucoma. However, in phaco­toxic uveitis there was a significant change in all the three immunoglobulins. In endoph­thalmitis - phacoanaphylactica subgroup there was a significant fall in serum IgA level and increase in serum IgM levels while there was no change in serum IgG levels when com­pared to the respective level in healthy sub­jects. These findings suggest that humoral immune phenomenon is involved in lens induced ocular reactions.

References

1Mancini G., Carbonara A.O. and Heremans, J.F., 1965, Int. J. Immunochem. 2:235.
2Ghose,T.,QuigleyJ.H.,LandriganP.L.andAsif,A, 1973, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 57:897.
3Grob P.J., MartentA.C. and Witmar R., 1974, Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. 16:254.
4Koliopoulos J.X., Perkins E.S. and Seitanides B.E., 1970. Brit J.Ophthalmol. 54:233.
5AransonS.B.. 1968, In Clinical Methods in Uveitis. Ed. Gamble C.N., Goodner R.K. and O'Connor G.R.. Mosby St Louis, p. 185.
6W.H.O., 1970, Tech. Report Series 448:53.