Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

: 1984  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 412--414

Estimation of tear and serum manganese in disorders of anterior segment of eye

RG Sharma, SS Rao, PK Mathur 
 Department of Ophthalmology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, India

Correspondence Address:
R G Sharma
Professor of Ophthalmology, S.M.S. Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur

How to cite this article:
Sharma R G, Rao S S, Mathur P K. Estimation of tear and serum manganese in disorders of anterior segment of eye.Indian J Ophthalmol 1984;32:412-414

How to cite this URL:
Sharma R G, Rao S S, Mathur P K. Estimation of tear and serum manganese in disorders of anterior segment of eye. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1984 [cited 2023 Sep 25 ];32:412-414
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Full Text

Tear being a highly specialized and organised moist film, helps in the normal maintenance and functioning of anterior seg�ment of the eye. Manganese being a trace ele�ment is found in micro quantities. It is supposed to be intracellular and mostly attached to enzyme systems in epithelial cells.

It acts as an activator of orginase, dipep�tidase, leucylpeptidase, Oxaloacetic carbox�ylase, phospho gluconotase and prolidase. Tear manganese has been sparsely reported to be about thirty times greater than serums. Such a higher concentration of manganese in tear than in serum interested the authors to estimate and find its changes in anterior seg�ment lesions.


In the present study 50 normal cases and 181 cases of pathological group were studied for serum and tear manganese. Out of these 181 pathological cases, there were 30 cases each of trachoma and spring catarrh, 20 cases of pterygium, 11 cases of other types of con�junctivitis, 25 cases of corneal ulcers (viral 15, bacterial 15, fungal 10, & others 10) dacryocys�titis 10 & iridocyclitis 5.

Tear collection-Reflex tears were collec�ted after stimulating with strong vapours of liquid ammonia for 3 minutes in a micro capillary tube placed in lower fornix. Such three samples were collected by three suc�cessive stimulations and total 0.3 ml was obtained. This was diluted to 0.9 ml with demineralised water.

Serum collection :- 7 ml blood was cen�trifuged twice at 1700 rpm to get 2 ml of serum.

All samples were analysed within 2 hours with the Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with hollow cathode manganese lamp.

The absorbance of standard solution was estimated ant then absorbance of sample was estimated.


Normal serum manganese was 0.67�0.034 mg/ml and normal tear manganese was 18.9�0.42 mg/ml. Ratio between the two was 1:28.3.


The higher level of tear manganese as com�pared to serum manganese remains and enigma. It may be because of unusual ability of lacrimal or accessory glands to concentrate manganese from serum or may be because of constant release of manganese from epithe�lial structures lining the anterior segment of the Eye.

In trachoma higher tear manganese level may be because of extreme scarring involving permanent epithelial damage & release of manganese from damaged epithelium. [Table 1]

In spring catarrh normal tear manganese is because of pathology being in fibrous tissue rather than epithelium. [Table 3]

In recently operated pterygium and recurrent pterygium, operative trauma causes release of metal carrying protein and subse�quent increase in tear manganese level. [Table 2].

In band shaped keratopattiy, the damaged epithelium releases manganese in teat.

In cases of Corneal ulcer where there was more epithelial inWilliam Frey 1981. Amer. J. Ophthalmol., 92.

volvement the teal manganese level was higher, as in dendritic, metaherpetic, superficial, fungal and bac�terial ulcer. [Table 4]


There is a increase in tear serum ratio of magnese in certain ocular disorders.[1]


1William Frey 1981. Amer. J. Ophthalmol., 92.