Year : 1984 | Volume
: 32 | Issue : 5 | Page : 424--426
Toxic effects of aflatoxins on eyes-an experimental clinico-histopathological evaluation
Shri Kant, D Srivastava, RN Misra
Irwin Groups of Hospitals, MP. Shah Medical College Jamnagar, India
Irwin Groups of Hospitals, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar
|How to cite this article:|
Shri Kant, Srivastava D, Misra R N. Toxic effects of aflatoxins on eyes-an experimental clinico-histopathological evaluation.Indian J Ophthalmol 1984;32:424-426
|How to cite this URL:|
Shri Kant, Srivastava D, Misra R N. Toxic effects of aflatoxins on eyes-an experimental clinico-histopathological evaluation. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 1984 [cited 2021 Sep 18 ];32:424-426
Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1984/32/5/424/27529
The improper storage of food leads to contamination of bacteria, fungi and other pathogens. The fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus are commonly found in Kharif Crop specially on groundnuts because of improper storage.
A toxic byproduct of these fungi i.e. Aflatoxin is known hepato-toxic and carcinogenic..
Aclinico-histopathological study was conducted on experimental animal `Chick' to know the toxic effects of Aflatoxin on eyes by giving Aflatoxin by various routes viz. oral, topical and intraperitioneal.
In the present study we are limited to administration of B l Aflatoxin through oral route only.
Aflatoxins are a group of structurally similar difarocoumarin, elaborated as secondary metabolites by certain strains of saprophytic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parastiticus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The pure sample of B t Aflatoxin was used which was confirmed by thin layer chromatography as described by Hartley RD., Mesbitt, B.F. and Okelly, J. The samples were kept in freeze at 0° C temperature.
The experimental animals `Chicks' (Gallus indicus), all males weighing 28-35 gins were used in this study. They were feed on standard chick feed recommended by central drug research institute, Lucknow and manufactured by Hindustan Lever Ltd. Bombay. They were given water ad libum. The animals were kept at 37±1°C temperature in incubator.
For oral route of Aflatoxin administration animals were divided into three groups:
Group-A : Four animals - control.
Group-B : Eight animals - animals were
fed on Aflatoxin contaminated
diet containing 3 mg B I Aflatoxin
per kilogram of Chick feed.
Group-C : Eight animals - animals were
fed on Aflatoxin contaminated
diet containing 6 mg B l Aflatoxin
per kilogram of Chick feed
The animals were labelled by Eosin stain marking on their head, trunk and wings. The eyes were examined by naked eye, lens loupe examinations and slit lamp examinations, For histopathological studies animals were sacrificed by the method of dislocations of cervical vertebra.
Enucleation of eyes were done. In addition to eyes liver was also removed from the body.
Eyes were fixed in Lillies Buffered formaline, and liver was fix( . in Bouin's Solution. Then material was dey bated, embedded in wax and sectioning was done at 6 micro thickness by microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining was done. Histopathological slides were studied under low power and high power.
Clinical observation : The animals where B 1 Aflatoxin was given in dose of 3 mg/kg Chick feed did not reveal any remarkable change upto 4th wk. The animals where B 1 Aflatoxin was given in 6 mg/kg Chick feed were as given in [Table 1].
Show petechial heamorrahages in 7 chicks (87.5%), in 2 chicks (25%) it was of severe degree and in 1 chick (12.5%) it was doubtful. the joint swelling was present in 7 chicks (87.5%), conjunctival congestion was present in 7 chicks (87.5%), subconjunctival haemorrhage was present in. 6 chicks (75%). The haziness of cornea was present in 5 chicks (62.5%), excessive salivation was present in 4 chicks (50%) and anorexia was present in 5 chicks (62.5%).
In control animals who were fed on aflatoxin free diet there was no change.
Histopathological study : The chick fed on diet containing 3 mg B 1 Aflatoxin/kg chick feed did not show any histopathological change as compared to control chicks. The histopathological changes were present in the animals who were fed on diet containing 6 mg B 1 Aflatoxin/kg chick feed.
Conjunctiva : In 7 chicks (87.5%) conjunctiva was showing haemorrhages along with polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. Cornea : In 5 chicks (62.5%) cornea was showing lamellar seperation along with polymorphonuclear cells infiltration.
Iris : In 5 chicks (62.5%) iris was showing changes in the form of hypertrophy and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. Sclera : In 8 chicks (100%) scleral cells were showing pyknosis of i.e. nuclear material was contracted. The cytoplasm was scanty and showing vacuolation around the nucleus i.e. para nuclear vacuolation. Lens In 6 chicks (75%) the changes in the form of lameilar separations along with round cells infiltrations towards periphery was present. The capsule was intact. Retina : In all the 8 chicks retina did not show any remarkable change except mild tendency towards seperation of their layers specially from choroid along with pigmentary epithelium of retina.
Liver : The chicks who were fed on diet containing 3 mg B i Aflatoxin/kg of chick feed did not show any histopathological change as compared to control chicks. However in chicks who were fed on diet containing 6 mg B 1 Aflatoxin/kg of chick feed show change in the form of petechial haemorrhages in all the animals. Others changes in the form of hepatic cells showing pyknosis of nucleus i.e. contracted nucleus with vacuolation. The hepatic cell's hexagonal shap was distorted. The haemcrrhages were present underneath capsule. The changes in portal tract consist of marked round cells infiltration. Proliferation of bile duct, edema and fibrosis around the duct was also present.
The eye diseases and blindness is a global problem. Amongst the various causes of bindness, diet of the persons plays a very vital role. It has been observed that blindness and various ophthalmic diseases are twice or more common in lower socio-economic class as compared to higher socioeconomic class. It has been observed that when B I Aflatoxin was given in strength of 3mg/kg chick feed it did not produced any appreciable clinical change. But when same B I Aflatoxiii was given in strength of 6 mg/kg chick feed by oral route for 4 weeks various clincial changes were oserved. Here also histopathological changes occured in eyes and liver as compared to control gorup. This can be explained on the basis that B, Aflatoxin 3 mg/kg chick feed is low dose for producing any appreciable clinical and/or histopathological changes.
In an experimental study, the effect of Aflatoxin on ocular tissue is studied.
|1||Gopalan, C., Tulpule, P.G. and Krishnamurthy, D. 1972. Toxicol 10:519.|