Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

PHOTO ESSAY
Year
: 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1617--1618

Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head


Amar Pujari, Ritika Mukhija, Rohan Chawla, Swati Phuljhele, Rohit Saxena, Pradeep Sharma 
 Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amar Pujari
Room no 212, Second floor, RPC-1, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India

Abstract




How to cite this article:
Pujari A, Mukhija R, Chawla R, Phuljhele S, Saxena R, Sharma P. Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head.Indian J Ophthalmol 2018;66:1617-1618


How to cite this URL:
Pujari A, Mukhija R, Chawla R, Phuljhele S, Saxena R, Sharma P. Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head. Indian J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Dec 3 ];66:1617-1618
Available from: https://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2018/66/11/1617/244056


Full Text



In the first setting, the optic nerve head findings are documented using a smartphone, a high magnifying lens that is clipped over the camera of the smartphone [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b and a 90 D lens. The images are captured after adequate pupillary dilatation, and with the patient looking straight ahead. For examining the patient's right eye, a 90 D lens held in the left hand of the examiner is placed close to the patient's eye and phone clipped with the magnifying lens is slowly moved forward and pictures are obtained [Figure 1]c. Following are a few examples of the clinical conditions captured using this technique: (1) Glaucomatous optic disc cupping, (2) normal disc, (3) temporal crescent, and (4) papillitis [Figure 1]d, [Figure 1]e, [Figure 1]f, [Figure 1]g.{Figure 1}

In the second technique, the direct ophthalmoscope and the smartphone are used together to assess the optic disc and macular pathology. The smartphone camera is fixed directly onto the direct ophthalmoscope eye aperture (with glue or tape) [Figure 1]h and the scope is slowly moved toward the patient's eye. Even though it is possible to appreciate the findings in un-dilated pupil, dilation is necessary to facilitate capturing the images with ease [Figure 1]i.

 Discussion



Clinical assessment of the optic disc using the smartphone and an adapter has been noted in few observations.[1],[2],[3],[4] Our technique is both simple and cost-effective and in addition, the technique can be disseminated to medical colleagues from other specialties to document fundus findings in cases where immediate assessment by an ophthalmologist is not possible.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Bastawrous A, Giardini ME, Bolster NM, Peto T, Shah N, Livingstone IA, et al. Clinical validation of a smartphone-based adapter for optic disc imaging in Kenya. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134:151-8.
2Russo A, Morescalchi F, Costagliola C, Delcassi L, Semeraro F. A novel device to exploit the smartphone camera for fundus photography. J Ophthalmol 2015;2015:823139.
3Rajalakshmi R, Arulmalar S, Usha M, Prathiba V, Kareemuddin KS, Anjana RM, et al. Validation of smartphone based retinal photography for diabetic retinopathy screening. PLoS One 2015;10:e0138285.
4Nazari Khanamiri H, Nakatsuka A, El-Annan J. Smartphone fundus photography. J Vis Exp 2017;6:55958.