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  Most popular articles (Since April 01, 2005)

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Ocular oncology practice guidelines during COVID-19 pandemic-An expert consensus
Fairooz P Manjandavida, Santosh G Honavar, Usha Kim, Usha Singh, Vikas Menon, Sima Das, Swathi Kaliki, Mahesh Shanmugam Palanivelu, Vikas Khetan, Parag K Shah, Pukhraj Rishi, Kaustubh Mulay, Arpan Gandhi, BM Vadhiraja, Vijay Anand Reddy, Sunil Bhat, Vasudha Rao
July 2020, 68(7):1281-1291
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1669_20  PMID:32587152
The outbreak of rapidly spreading COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019 has witnessed a major transformation in the health care system worldwide. This has led to the re-organization of the specialty services for the effective utilization of available resources and ensuring the safety of patients and healthcare workers. Suspension of oncology services will have major implications on cancer care due to delayed diagnosis and treatment leading to irreversible adverse consequences. Therefore various oncology organizations have called for a continuation of cancer care during this crisis with diligence. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the clinicians to transform the components of care from screening to outpatient care and primary management. The purpose of this article is to establish guidelines and recommendations for ocular oncology in the management of ocular tumors set by a multidisciplinary team of experts including ocular, medical and radiation oncologists, and pathologists. As the pandemic is evolving fast, it will require constant updates and reformation of health strategies and guidelines for safe and quality health care.
  278,882 295 -
Potential ocular and systemic COVID-19 prophylaxis approaches for healthcare professionals
Rohit Shetty, Vaitheeswaran Ganesan Lalgudi, Pooja Khamar, Krati Gupta, Swaminathan Sethu, Archana Nair, Santosh G Honavar, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Sharon D'Souza
July 2020, 68(7):1349-1356
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1589_20  PMID:32587162
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought with it, innumerable challenges in healthcare, both through the direct burden of morbidity and mortality of the disease, and also by the curtailing of other essential albeit less emergency medical services to reduce the risk of community spread. Reports from around the world are showing mounting number of cases even in healthcare professionals spite of usage of adequate personal protective equipment. There are a number of factors which could account for this, be it the affinity of the virus to the respiratory and other mucosa or to patient risk factors for developing severe forms of the disease. In view of the growing need for resuming other medical services, it is essential to find newer ways to protect ourselves better, whether by systemic or topical mucosal prophylaxis with various medications or lifestyle changes promoting wellbeing and immunity. This article discusses additional prophylactic measures including drug repurposing or new indication paradigms to render protection. Certain medications such as chloroquine, trehalose, antihistaminics, and interferons used topically for various ocular conditions with reasonably good safety records are known to have anti-viral properties. Hence, can be harnessed in preventing SARS-CoV-2 attachment, entry, and/or replication in host cells. Similarly, use of hypertonic saline for nasal and oral mucosa and dietary changes are possible methods of improving our resistance. These additional prophylactic measures can be cautiously explored by healthcare professionals to protect themselves and their patients.
  243,086 638 -
Ophthalmological signet ring sign by a glaucoma implant
Sunny Chi Lik Au, Simon Tak Chuen Ko
September 2019, 67(9):1477-1477
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_470_19  PMID:31436203
  88,019 85,671 -
World diabetes day 2018: Battling the Emerging Epidemic of Diabetic Retinopathy
Suresh K Pandey, Vidushi Sharma
November 2018, 66(11):1652-1653
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1681_18  PMID:30355895
  139,138 299 -
A tribute to frontline corona warriors––Doctors who sacrificed their life while saving patients during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic
Suresh K Pandey, Vidushi Sharma
May 2020, 68(5):939-942
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_754_20  PMID:32317499
  116,647 849 -
Interpreting automated perimetry
Ravi Thomas, Ronnie George
April-June 2001, 49(2):125-140
Visual field testing is mandatory for many ophthalmic conditions including glaucoma. The current gold standard for visual field testing is automated perimetry. In this article we familiarize the reader with the components of an automated perimetry printout. We describe a systematic approach that leads to a thorough interpretation of the printout. With the help of examples the reader should be able to learn to identify a normal field, detect the presence of a field defect, determine whether it is due to glaucoma, and establish progression, if any.
  99,710 1 2
The impact of COVID-19 related lockdown on ophthalmology training programs in India – Outcomes of a survey
Deepak Mishra, Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Rashmin Anilkumar Gandhi, Parikshit J Gogate, Satanshu Mathur, Prashant Bhushan, Tanmay Srivastav, Hemendra Singh, Bibhuti P Sinha, Mahendra Kumar Singh
June 2020, 68(6):999-1004
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1067_20  PMID:32461413
Purpose: In 2020, in response to the emergence and global spread of the disease COVID-19, caused by a new variant of coronavirus 2019-nCoV, the government of India ordered a nationwide lockdown for 21 days, which was then extended to a total of over 50 days. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the lockdown on ophthalmic training programs across India. Methods: An online survey was sent across to trainee ophthalmologists across India through various social media platforms. Results: In all, 716 trainees responded; the average age was 29.1 years. Results showed that majority of the respondents were enrolled in residency programs (95.6%; 685/716) and the others were in fellowship programs. About 24.6% (176/716) of the trainees had been deployed on 'COVID-19 screening' duties. Nearly 80.7% (578/716) of the trainees felt that the COVID-19 lockdown had negatively impacted their surgical training. Furthermore, 54.8% (392/716) of the trainees perceived an increase in stress levels during the COVID-19 lockdown and 77.4% (554/716) reported that their family members had expressed an increased concern for their safety and wellbeing since the lockdown began. In all, 75.7% (542/716) of the respondents felt that online classes and webinars were useful during the lockdown period. Conclusion: Our survey showed that majority ophthalmology trainees across the country felt that the COVID-19 lockdown adversely affected their learning, especially surgical training. While most found online classes and webinars useful, the trainees' perceived stress levels were higher than normal during the lockdown. Training hospitals should take cognizance of this and reassure trainees; formulate guidelines to augment training to compensate for the lost time as well as mitigate the stress levels upon resumption of regular hospital services and training. Going ahead, permanent changes such as virtual classrooms and simulation-based training should be considered.
  81,868 1,126 -
COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned and future directions
Rohit C Khanna, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Suzanne S Gilbert, Santosh G Honavar, Gudlavalleti S V Murthy
May 2020, 68(5):703-710
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_843_20  PMID:32317432
Emerging pandemics show that humans are not infallible and communities need to be prepared. Coronavirus outbreak was first reported towards the end of 2019 and has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Worldwide countries are responding differently to the virus outbreak. A delay in detection and response has been recorded in China, as well as in other major countries, which led to an overburdening of the local health systems. On the other hand, some other nations have put in place effective strategies to contain the infection and have recorded a very low number of cases since the beginning of the pandemics. Restrictive measures like social distancing, lockdown, case detection, isolation, contact tracing, and quarantine of exposed had revealed the most efficient actions to control the disease spreading. This review will help the readers to understand the difference in response by different countries and their outcomes. Based on the experience of these countries, India responded to the pandemic accordingly. Only time will tell how well India has faced the outbreak. We also suggest the future directions that the global community should take to manage and mitigate the emergency.
  68,894 3,378 -
Effect of COVID-19 on ocular diseases and ophthalmology residency training program-A developing country's perspective
Bhagabat Nayak, Saswati Sen, Sucheta Parija
July 2020, 68(7):1491-1491
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1556_20  PMID:32587213
  69,661 148 -
Management of vitreous haemorrhage.
S Saxena, S Jalali, L Verma, A Pathengay
April-June 2003, 51(2):189-196
Vitreous hemorrhage is one of the most common differential diagnoses for sudden painless decrease in vision. Often, it is caused by retinal vascular disorders secondary to common systemic ailments such as diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension and haematological abnormalities. Sometimes it may be the beginning of a retinal tear and consequent retinal detachment that can be vision threatening if not operated early. This paper lays out practical guidelines for a tailored approach needed to arrive at the aetiology of vitreous haemorrhage so that appropriate, timely treatment can be planned.
  55,175 2,761 2
A surge in eye clinic nonattendance under 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak
Sunny Chi Lik Au
May 2020, 68(5):948-948
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_673_20  PMID:32317502
  33,638 20,240 -
Amniotic membrane transplantation: A review of current indications in the management of ophthalmic disorders
Virender S Sangwan, Sanghamitra Burman, Sushma Tejwani, Sankaranarayana Pillai Mahesh, Ramesh Murthy
July-August 2007, 55(4):251-260
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.33036  PMID:17595472
Amniotic membrane transplantation is currently being used for a continuously widening spectrum of ophthalmic indications. It has gained widespread attention as an effective method of reconstruction of the ocular surface. Amniotic membrane has a unique combination of properties, including the facilitation of migration of epithelial cells, the reinforcement of basal cellular adhesion and the encouragement of epithelial differentiation. Its ability to modulate stromal scarring and its anti-inflammatory activity has led to its use in the treatment of ocular surface pathology as well as an adjunct to limbal stem cell grafts. Amniotic membrane transplantation has been used for reconstruction of the corneal surface in the setting of persistent epithelial defects, partial limbal stem cell deficiency, bullous keratopathy and corneoscleral ulcers. It has also been used in conjunction with limbal stem cell transplantation for total limbal stem cell deficiency. Amniotic membrane grafts have been effectively used as a conjunctival substitute for reconstruction of conjunctival defects following removal of pterygia, conjunctival lesions and symblephara. More recently, amniotic membrane has been used as a substrate for ex vivo cultivation of limbal, corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. This article reviews the current literature on the applications of amniotic membrane transplantation and its outcome in various ophthalmic conditions.
  48,275 5,196 37
Susruta of ancient India
VK Raju
April-June 2003, 51(2):119-122
"It is interesting that while in Hindu medicine, cataract was defined by Susruta as opacity due to derangement of the intraocular fluid, subsequent history is full of fantasies and prejudices concerning its nature." Duke Elder[1] "All in all Susruta must be considered the greatest surgeon of the pre medieval period." A.O. Whipple[2]
  51,095 1,278 8
White with pressure (WWP) and white without pressure (WWOP) lesions
Manoj Shukla, OP Anuja
May-June 1982, 30(3):129-132
  51,819 0 -
Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Diva Kant Misra, Nilutparna Deori
July 2017, 65(7):551-558
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_540_17  PMID:28724810
The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.
  50,418 1,113 -
Bloody tears (haemolacria)
BK Ahluwalia, AK Khurana, S Sood
January-February 1987, 35(1):41-43
A case of bloody tears in a young hysterical female is described and rarity of the condition is stressed.
  48,143 0 3
Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome
Pradeep Sharma, Ruchi Tomer, Vimla Menon, Rohit Saxena, Anudeepa Sharma
February 2014, 62(2):204-208
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.121145  PMID:24618490
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35) exotropia for group A and −21.3 Δ (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to −8) for group A and 8 Δ (−2 to −20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.
  47,084 299 3
Ocular manifestations in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome
Shivcharan L Chandravanshi, Ashok Kumar Rawat, Prem Chand Dwivedi, Pankaj Choudhary
November-December 2011, 59(6):509-512
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.86327  PMID:22011502
The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGP) syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. The word progeria is derived from the Greek word progeros meaning 'prematurely old'. It is caused by de novo dominant mutation in the LMNA gene (gene map locus 1q21.2) and characterized by growth retardation and accelerated degenerative changes of the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. The most common ocular manifestations are prominent eyes, loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, and lagophthalmos. In the present case some additional ocular features such as horizontal narrowing of palpebral fissure, superior sulcus deformity, upper lid retraction, upper lid lag in down gaze, poor pupillary dilatation, were noted. In this case report, a 15-year-old Indian boy with some additional ocular manifestations of the HGP syndrome is described.
  41,770 2,191 -
Posterior Capsule Opacification : A Review of the Aetiopathogenesis, Experimental and Clinical Studies and Factors for Prevention
Suresh K Pandey, David J Apple, L Werner, Anthony J Maloof, E John Milverton
April-June 2004, 52(2):99-112
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO, secondary cataract, after cataract) is a nagging postsurgical complication following extracapsular cataract surgery (ECCE) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. PCO should be eliminated since it has deleterious sequelae and Neodynium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd: YAG) laser treatment often is an unnecessary financial burden on the health care system. PCO following cataract surgery could be a major problem, since patient follow-up is difficult and the Nd:YAG laser is not always available. Advances in surgical techniques, IOL designs/biomaterials have been instrumental in bringing about a gradual and unnoticed decrease in the incidence of PCO. We strongly believe that the overall incidence of PCO and hence the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is now rapidly decreasing - from 50% in the 1980s and early 1990s to less than 10% currently. Superior tools, surgical procedures, skills and appropriate IOL designs have all helped to significantly reduce this complication. In this article, we review the aetio pathogenesis, experimental and clinical studies and propose surgical and implant-related factors for PCO prevention. Careful application and utilisation of these factors by surgeons could lead to a significant reduction is secondary cataract, the second most common cause of visual loss worldwide
  38,727 5,082 34
Amplitude of accommodation in different age groups and age of on set of presbyopia in Bengalee population
DN Chattopadhyay, GN Seal
March-April 1984, 32(2):85-87
  40,211 0 -
Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors
Lekha Mary Abraham, Thomas Kuriakose, Viswanathan Sivanandam, Nithya Venkatesan, Ravi Thomas, Jayaprakash Muliyil
April-June 2005, 53(2):105-108
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.16173  PMID:15976465
Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA) was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA). In patients with more than 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P <0.005) and between myopes and emmetropes ( P <0.005) in the 35-39 year age group. In the 40- 44 year age group, there was a significant difference in AA between emmetropes and hypermetropes ( P <0.0001), emmetropes and myopes ( P <0.01) and hypermetropes and myopes ( P <0.0001). In patients above 45 years of age there was no significant difference ( P >0.5). Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes
  37,449 2,030 17
The pathology of cornea (A histopathological study)
PK Agrawal
September-October 1983, 31(5):662-665
  38,009 0 -
Orbital regional anesthesia: Complications and their prevention
CM Kumar
April-June 2006, 54(2):77-84
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.25826  PMID:16770022
Serious complications following orbital regional anesthesia are rare, but occur following both needle and blunt cannula (sub-Tenon's) techniques. Each technique of orbital regional anesthesia has its own risk/benefit profile. This article reviews the etiology, risk factors, treatment and prevention of complications of commonly used akinetic orbital blocks. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic anesthesiologists must be prepared to deal with rare, but serious complications, that can occur with any technique of orbital regional anesthesia.
  35,027 2,470 26
Retinal vein occlusion
Sohan Singh Hayreh
July-September 1994, 42(3):109-132
In this review of the retinal vein occlusion (RVO), I have summarized recent advances on several controversial and clinically important topics: classification of RVO into six distinct clinical entities; pathogeneses and demographic characteristics of various types of RVO; differentiation of non-ischemic from ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO); differentiation of hemi-CRVO (HCRVO) from major branch RVO (BRVO); and the course, complications and management of various types of RVO
  36,633 4 38
Accommodative-convergence over accommodation (AC/A) ratio (in normal Indian subjects)
DK Sen, S.R.K Malik
December 1972, 20(4):153-157
  36,344 0 -