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   1990| April-June  | Volume 38 | Issue 2  
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Prevention of oculocardiac reflex (O.C.R) during extraocular muscle surgery
VK Misurya, SP Singh, VK Kulshrestha
April-June 1990, 38(2):85-87
In the present study the effectiveness of intravenous atropine sulphate which blocks the peripheral muscarinic receptors at the heart and retrobulbar xylocaine hydrochloride which blocks the conduction at ciliary ganglion on the afferent limb of OCR was studied during strabismus surgery. The study was conducted on fifty three patients of either sex having squint of more than ten years duration. The patients were randomly allocated into four groups. No preanaesthetic medication with atropine or retrobulbar block with xylocaine was given in control group of patients. In the second group, only preanaesthetic medication with atropine was given; while in the third group only retrobulbar injection of xylocaine was given five minutes before operation. In the last group both atropine as preanaesthetic medication and xylocaine as retrobulbar block were given. The electrocardiographic recordings were taken before and throughout the operative procedure. It was interesting to note that in the group where atropine and xylocaine were used none of the patients exhibited activation of OCR. Results have been discussed.
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Diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis-A report of four cases and review of literature
Savitri Sharma, M Srinivasan, Celine George
April-June 1990, 38(2):50-56
Acanthamoeba keratitis is not reported often in India. We reported the first case diagnosed in this country a year back. In this communication, four more cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed since then are being reported along with a brief review of literature. Diagnosis in all these patients was based on observation of acanthamoeba cysts in 10% KOH wet mount of corneal ulcer scrapings and subsequent culture. The characteristic ring infiltration of cornea was seen in all of them. All cases were treated medically with the available antiamoebic drugs (Miconazole, Neosporin, Ketoconazole and Metronidazole) in different combinations. Only one out of four, responded with complete healing of the ulcer. Acanthamoeba keratitis is probably not as uncommon in India as it is thought to be. With increased awareness and performance of minimal laboratory tests the condition may be diagnosed more often.
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Xeroderma pigmentosum (case report)
Arvind Kumar Dubey, Madhu Nagar, Anita Gupta, Dinesh Sahu, Subodh Mishra
April-June 1990, 38(2):94-96
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare, hereditary and fatal disease of the skin. Ocular involvement is known to occur in 80% of cases. A case with typical cutaneous and ocular lesions is reported.
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Torsional Kestenbaum in congenital nystagmus with torticollis
Prem Prakash, AV Arya, Pradeep Sharma, V Menon Mahesh Chandra
April-June 1990, 38(2):70-73
Surgery in idiopathic congenital nystagmus to correct an abnormal head posture is based on the shifting of neutral point. Torsional Kestenbaum has been done in cases of congenital nystagmus with torticollis, without definite localisation of null point and sustained improvement of head posture subsequent to surgery has been attributed to presumed shift of the null point. We present a 6 year-old boy with congenital horizontal nystagmus with marked head tilt towards the left shoulder. Electronystagmography showed dampening of nystagmus on left tilt. Recession/advancement of all four oblique muscles was done to shift the null point and nystagmus dampened in the primary position eliminating the head tilt. This report emphasises the significance of electronystagmography in critical decision of horizontal/torsional Kestenbaum and documentation of innervational changes following surgery and subsequent followup.
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Management of progressive exophthalmos
S Kumar, Chowdhury Subhankar, SC Sen
April-June 1990, 38(2):61-63
The present study reveals our experience in the medical management of 30 cases of progressive/malignant exophthalmos, employing costicosteroid, b-blocker, diuretic and a preparation containing proteolytic enzymes. There was encouraging improvement in terms of symptoms, proptosis and optic nerve compression, while reduction of ophthalmoplegia was not so satisfactory. However, none of the patients needed decompression surgery.
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SAFA test as an aid to the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis
Madan Mohan, SP Garg, Harsh Kumar, Shriniwas , Madhu Raj
April-June 1990, 38(2):57-60
A prospective double blind study was carried out to evaluate the role of soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (SAFA) test to detect ocular Tuberculosis. The study material comprised 39 patients with suspected ocular tuberculosis suffering from interstitial keratitis, sclero keratitis, granulomatous uveitis, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, Eales disease and central serous retinopathy. The cases of proven ocular tuberculosis showed up as 70 percent strong reactors and 30 percent weak reactors to SAFA while none had a negative response to SAFA. Of these cases skin hypersensitivity reaction was positive only in 40 percent of the cases. The control group revealed a strong SAFA reaction in only 4 percent of cases with a weak reaction in 44 percent of cases. It thus appears that SAFA test can provide a useful addition to the routine tests in diagnosing tuberculosis.
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Unilateral cryptophthalmos
VP Gupta, DK Sen
April-June 1990, 38(2):97-99
A rare case of unilateral cryptophthalmos have unique findings is reported. The lateral part of the left eye was replaced by downward extension of the frontal hairline. The left upper eyelid, except in the lateral 4mm fully developed portion, was replaced by a fold adherent to the underlying disorganized globe (6.9 mm). The lower lid, however, was fully developed. Ocular and systemic features of cryptophthalmos have been reviewed. Predilection for the left eye in unilateral cases has been hinted for the first time.
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Skin grafting in severely contracted socket with the use of 'Compo'
SM Betharia, Kanthamani , Hari Prakash, Sushil Kumar
April-June 1990, 38(2):88-91
The results of split thickness autologous skin grafting along with the use of a dental impression material (Compo), a thermoplastic substance are presented in a series of 11 patients of acquired, severely contracted, anophthalmic sockets. Only the fornix fixation sutures and the central tarsorrhaphy were employed for the proper placement of graft without the use of retention devices. Artificial eyes were successfully fitted and retained subsequently after 6 weeks of grafting.
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Clinicobacteriological correlates of congenital dacryocystitis
Umesh Bareja, S Ghose
April-June 1990, 38(2):66-69
One hundred and fourteen eyes with congenital dacryocystitis have been studied clinically and bacteriologically. Gram positive cocci constituted the major bacterial isolates (57.9%) with streptococcus pneumoniae predominating (28.9%). The most effective antibiotic was cloxacillin with an overall efficacy of 77%. Normal conjunctival flora was sterile in majority (75%) of cases. Positive cases showed preponderance of gram positive cocci (21.6%) with staphylococcus albus (13.3%) being the major isolate. Normal nasal flora revealed diphtheroids (alone or in combination) to be the commonest bacteria (62.1%). A statistically significant correlation was not observed between the normal conjunctival or nasal flora and flora from the affected eyes.
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Visual status of industrial workers
Rajiv Desai, Sanjiv Desai, Navin Desai, K Kumar
April-June 1990, 38(2):64-65
Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractive errors rectified.
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Live male adult W. bancrofti in the anterior chamber-A case report
Yogesh Arora, Ravin N Das
April-June 1990, 38(2):92-93
A unique case of an adult, live, Filarial warm (W.Bancrofti) in the anterior chamber of an adult female is being reported.
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A comparative study of ophthalmodynamometry in hypertensive and non-hypertensive cases
SS Grewal, RK Grewal, SS Shergill
April-June 1990, 38(2):78-80
Ophthalmodynamometry was done on 100 hypertensive cases and 100 non-hypertensive cases who had clear media and no glaucoma. The ratio of the pressure mean ophthalmic: pressure mean brachial in the non-hypertensive group was 0.71:1.0, which rose to 0.78:1.0 in the hypertensive group. The ophthalmic humeral diastolic ratio increased with the severity of fundus changes. The pressure mean ophthalmic showed higher values with increasing grades of fundus changes. Those cases having a pressure mean opthalmic higher than the expected value in the hypertensive group as compared to the cases having a pressure mean ophthalmic lower than the expected value, were at a greater risk or had a graver prognosis. The importance of ophthalmodynamometry is stressed for the prognosis of hypertension along with the fundus examination.
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Trabeculocyclostomy-A new modified filtering surgery for primary simple glaucoma
Gurdeep Singh, Jagmeet Kaur
April-June 1990, 38(2):81-84
A new modified 'INTERNAL' filtering surgery, Trabeculocyclostomy (TC) is described in 24 eyes of Primary open angle glaucoma. The importance of controlled drainage of aqueous into the suprachoroidal space and its absorption by the well vascularised choroidal tissue is highlighted. Out of the 24 eyes operated by this technique, in 20 eyes (83.3%) no further treatment was required for a mean follow up period of 18 months. In majority of the cases i.e. 19 eyes the anterior chamber reformed from the first day itself and remained so throughout the follow up period. With this in mind Trabeculocyclostomy may be a valuable procedure in cases of pseudophakic glaucoma (usually pre-existent) especially where an anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation has been done or is being done as a combined procedure. Minimum complications have been encountered to date.
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Elastic fibres in retinal detachment
Rajvardhan Azad
April-June 1990, 38(2):74-77
Generalised abnormalities have been described previously in familial and bilateral retinal detachment 1.2.3. Some studies have shown the presence of specific histological skin changes in cases of retinal detachment per se as well as in other syndromes having associated retinal detachment, hence pointing towards a generalised abnormality of constitution3.9.12. Drawing an analogy from these observations, the aim of our study was to study the histological changes in the skin of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to relate its a etiopathogenesis to a generalized abnormality.
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Retina and vitreous-the decade of eighties
PN Nagpal
April-June 1990, 38(2):49-49
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