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   1994| April-June  | Volume 42 | Issue 2  
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Diagnostic tests for corneal diseases
Mahipal S Sachdev, Santosh G Honavar, Meenakshi Thakar
April-June 1994, 42(2):89-99
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Penetrating keratoplasty for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy
Vinay Agrawal, Mustali M Vagh, Virender Sangwan, Gullapalli N Rao
April-June 1994, 42(2):75-80
Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is the only definitive treatment for the visual rehabilitation of eyes with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). Management of the intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of PK is dependent on lens-related factors and anterior segment abnormalities. We reviewed the results of PK in 81 cases of PBK done at our institute between November 1987 and May 1993. The original lens was an anterior chamber IOL in 26 (32.1%) eyes, iris claw lens in 38 (41.9%) eyes, and a posterior chamber IOL in 17 (20.98%) eyes. IOL explanation alone was done in 24 (29.6%) eyes. The original IOL was retained in 12 (14.9%) eyes and IOL exchange was done in 45 (55.5%) eyes. With a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, the graft remained clear in 54 (66.6%) and the commonest cause of graft failure was graft rejection (17.2%). The best-corrected visual acuity in our series was 20/40 or more in 11 (20.3%) eyes and 20/50 to 20/100 in 30 (55.5%) eyes. We recommend explantation of all closed-loop anterior chamber and iris claw IOLs, and that, anterior chamber reconstruction during PK IOL exchange should be done using a posterior chamber IOL or open-loop Kelman type AC IOL.
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Clinical course of scleritis induced by cataract surgery : A case report
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Nitin Dutta, Kasturi Das
April-June 1994, 42(2):81-83
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Sterility and the disinfection potential of Indian contact lens solutions
Usha Gopinathan, Savitri Sharma, Shobha Boghani, Gullapalli N Rao
April-June 1994, 42(2):65-70
Ocular infection associated with microbial contamination of contact lens care products is a major problem in contact lens wearers. The sterility and the antimicrobial activity of contact lens care systems reflect their suitability for disinfection of contact lenses. These factors remain to be evaluated for the various newer contact lens care products manufactured in India. In this study, 35 bottles of contact lens solutions marketed by different manufacturing units in India were tested for sterility. Seven solutions were tested for antimicrobial effectiveness employing the D value method of analysis. The D value is defined as the time required to reduce a population of organisms by 90% (one log unit). A standard inoculum of the ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Acanthamoeba castellanii were used as challenge organisms. Bacterial contamination was detected in 20 (57.1%) solution bottles and none yielded fungus or Acanthamoeba. Pseudomonas species were the most commonly encountered contaminant (11/20; 55%). Only sterile solutions were analyzed for antimicrobial activity. D values ranging between 12 and 20 minutes were demonstrated by six of the seven solutions against bacterial challenge. Good antifungal activity was noticed in five solutions against Fusarium solani though results varied with Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. All solutions were adequately effective against Acanthamoeba.
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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications
Narsing A Rao
April-June 1994, 42(2):51-63
Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.
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Leber's congenital amaurosis with nephropathy.
K Sharma, Raj Kumar Sharma, R Elhence, S Gulati, V Kher
April-June 1994, 42(2):83-85
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Donor corneoscleral rim contamination by gentamicin-resistant organisms
Usha Gopinathan, Vinay Agrawal, Savitri Sharma, Gullapalli N Rao
April-June 1994, 42(2):71-74
Gentamicin is the most widely used antibiotic in the decontamination of donor cornea for penetrating keratoplasty. However, the incidence of resistance to gentamicin is on the rise. Bacterial isolates from 178 donor corneal rims were studied for gentamicin sensitivity. The overall rate of gentamicin resistance was 63.4%. At 86.2% the Pseudomonas. species had the highest rate of resistance, followed by Streptococci at 84.6%. The high rate of gentamicin resistance encountered by us and others suggest that either addition of a second antibiotic to corneal storage media or replacement of gentamicin by an antibiotic with a broader spectrum of activity may help reduce the risk of endophthalmitis following penetrating keratoplasty
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Suprasellar germinoma : A case report.
Apjit Kaur, Kartikeya Sharma, Piyush Mittal, Vijendra K Jain
April-June 1994, 42(2):85-87
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Relevance of quality assurance
Gullapalli N Rao
April-June 1994, 42(2):49-49
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