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   1999| July-September  | Volume 47 | Issue 3  
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Herpes simplex keratitis
PS Suresh, AB Tullo
July-September 1999, 47(3):155-165
Chronic infection of the cornea by Herpes simplex virus (HSV) continues to be an important cause of unilateral blindness. Despite considerable progress in the understanding of the virus at cellular and molecular levels, the prospect of prevention still appears to be long way off. The development of non-toxic topical antiviral agents has been an important step forward in management. However, correct diagnosis and treatment, in particular, the avoidance of inappropriate use of topical steroid remains as important as ever. This article reviews the virological and clinical aspects of HSV keratitis including the current concepts of pathogenesis and management
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Management of ocular perforations resulting from peribulbar anaesthesia
P Puri, D Verma, M McKibbin
July-September 1999, 47(3):181-183
Purpose: To analyse the clinical presentation and outcome of treatment for globe perforation secondary to peribulbar anaesthesia. Methods: Eight patients (3 females and 5 males) aged 66-84 years were included in the study. Ocular perforations were suspected in 3 cases before or during surgery, in 4 cases diagnosis was established within one week and in one case at 3 weeks. Three patients underwent indirect argon laser photocoagulation to seal the retinal break, one patient had cryotherapy, 3 patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with fluid gas exchange and endolaser; and one patient refused any further treatment. Results: The final visual acuity after a mean follow up of 14 months was better than 6/9 in 2 patients, between 6/9-6/12 in 4 patients, and perception of light in 2 patients. Conclusion: If diagnosed early and treated adequately, a majority of patients with globe perforation during periocular anaesthetic could be saved
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Incidence and management of posteriorly dislocated nuclear fragments following phacoemulsification.
A Mathai, R Thomas
July-September 1999, 47(3):173-176
PURPOSE: To report the incidence, management and complications of nucleus dislocation into the vitreous during phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1250 consecutive phacoemulsification performed by consultants and residents in a teaching hospital. RESULTS: The incidence of nucleus drops was 0.8% (10 out of 1250). Loss of nuclear fragments occurred during phacoemulsification in 9 patients. In one, the dislocation was caused by hydro-dissection. All except one patient (who refused further intervention) underwent pars plana vitrectomy with removal of nuclear fragments. Eight of them had intraocular lens (IOL) inserted at the time of cataract surgery or at vitrectomy; one patient was scheduled for a secondary IOL. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity ranged from 6/24-6/6; 8 patients achieved a vision of 6/12 or better. Complications included cystoid macular oedema (5 patients), retinal break (1 patient) and retinal detachment (1 patient). CONCLUSION: Appropriate management of posteriorly dislocated nucleus can restore good visual acuity. The use of phacoemulsification mandates availability of referral facilities for management of complications.
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Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy : Indications, results and its role in the Indian scenario
SK Rao, R Fogla, G Seethalakshmi, P Padmanabhan
July-September 1999, 47(3):167-172
PURPOSE: To report indications, technique, and results of excimer phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), and describe possible reasons for the small numbers of such procedures performed in a referral institute in India. METHODS: Retrospective review of case records of 10 patients (11 eyes) who underwent excimer PTK at our institute between February 1994 and September 1997. RESULTS: Corneal scars were the most common indication for treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in 6 eyes (mean: 2 lines of Snellen acuity). All eyes had BCVA > or = 6/12 after treatment. None of the patients experienced loss of BCVA after treatment. Unaided visual acuity improved in 3 eyes and decreased in 2 eyes. Change in spherical equivalent refraction > or = 1 diopter occurred in 77.8% of eyes after treatment. Treating central corneal scars resulted in a significant hyperopic shift in refraction. CONCLUSIONS: Excimer PTK is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of superficial corneal opacities. Post-treatment ametropia may require further correction with optical aids. Inappropriate referrals, deep corneal scars, and cost of the procedure could have contributed to the small numbers of PTK performed at our institute. Improved understanding of procedural strengths and limitations could lead to increased use of this procedure, with satisfying results in selected patients.
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Subconjunctival cysts following silicone oil injection: A clinicopathological study of five cases
J Biswas, PS Bhende, L Gopal, S Parikh, SS Badrinath
July-September 1999, 47(3):177-180
Purpose: To study the occurrence, risk factors and management of subconjunctival cysts formed following the use of intraocular silicone oil as a tamponade. Methods: We analysed 5 cases of single and multioculated subconjunctival oil cysts between 1986 and 1996. Results: Cysts were observed 15 days to 4 months following silicone oil injection. Clinically they showed minimal inflammatory signs but histopathology of removed cysts showed emulsified silicone oil globules with chronic inflammatory cellular infiltration. Conclusion: Though silicone oil is considered to be nontoxic, it can cause chronic inflammation when spilled into the subconjunctival space
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Cortical blindness : An unusual sequela of snake bite
U Dhaliwal
July-September 1999, 47(3):191-192
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Bacterial contamination of anterior chamber during IOL surgery
R Srinivasan, RA Reddy, S Rene, R Kanungo, MK Natarajan
July-September 1999, 47(3):185-189
PURPOSE: To study the nature and frequency of bacterial contamination during cataract surgery. METHODS: The preoperative smears from the conjunctiva and anterior chamber (AC) fluid aspirates during extra-capsular cataract surgery (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation in 40 eyes were analysed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Any change in the bacterial strains isolated before and after cataract surgery was also studied. RESULTS: AC fluid aspirates were positive for bacteria in 15 eyes (37.5%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common aerobe (39.4%) and Propionibacterium acnes the most common anaerobe. Of the 15 cases with positive AC fluid cultures, 6 showed an organism in the AC aspirate different from the conjunctival smear. CONCLUSION: Clinically there was no endophthalmitis in any of the eyes. Factors such as preoperative antibiotic use, the antibacterial properties of aqueous, or low inoculum size could explain this. The preoperative conjunctival smear may not be useful in predicting the AC fluid contamination or outcome of cataract surgery
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Yavatmal district blindness control society: A case study
SP Rao, RV Dubewar, PG Deotale
July-September 1999, 47(3):199-203
Purpose: To retrospectively study the records and reports available at the District Blindness Control Society (DBCS), Yavatmal in terms of target fixation, performance and utilisation of manpower and equipment. Methods: All the available records, reports, correspondence, and proceedings of meetings from 1981-98 were scrutinized and analyzed. Results: The performance records and reports showed that over the last 10 years the target achievement of DBCS is close to 100%. However, the fixed facility (District hospital/Tertiary hospital where cataract surgeries are being performed under strict aseptic conditions) performance does not match the targets. The district mobile unit camp performance achieved 35-40% of the target in the last quarter of the financial year. Conclusion: The target fixation is irrational and needs improvement, and it is necessary for the program managers in the district to undertake analysis of the available data to ensure performance improvement
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Bilateral frosted branch angiitis and cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
J Biswas, S Raizada, L Gopal, N Kumarasamy, S Solomon
July-September 1999, 47(3):195-197
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Reducing cataract surgery-related complications
J Ram
July-September 1999, 47(3):153-154
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Congenital retinal arterial loops and spontaneous vitreous haemorrhage: A case report
S Satish, AP Mridula, R Kim, M Chakrabarthi, P Namperumalsamy
July-September 1999, 47(3):197-198
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Lipaemia retinalis in a case of Juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis
SS Jain, S Thomas, SA Motwane, A Seth
July-September 1999, 47(3):192-193
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Blindness due to firearm eye injuries in rural western Uttar Pradesh
A Gupta, S Mittal
July-September 1999, 47(3):194-195
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Author's reply
SP Deshpande
July-September 1999, 47(3):205-205
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