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   2000| January-March  | Volume 48 | Issue 1  
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Ascaris lumbricoides in the lacrimal passage
M Balasubramaniam, P Sudhakar, M Subhashini, S Srinivasan, M Padma, V Chopra
January-March 2000, 48(1):53-4
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VISION 2020: The right to sight
GN Rao
January-March 2000, 48(1):3-3
  7,299 0 1
Molecular genetics of cataract.
C Kannabiran, D Balasubramanian
January-March 2000, 48(1):5-13
Studies on hereditary congenital cataracts have led to the identification of genes involved in formation of these cataracts. Knowledge of the structure and function of a particular gene and the effect of disease-associated mutations on its function are providing insights into the mechanisms of cataract. Identification of the disease gene requires both the relevant clinical data as well as genetic data on the entire pedigree in which the disease is found to occur. Genes for hereditary cataract have been mapped by genetic linkage analysis, in which one examines the inheritance pattern of DNA markers throughout the genome in all individuals of the pedigree, and compares those with the inheritance of the disease. Cosegregation of a set of markers with disease implies that the disease gene is present at the same chromosomal location as those markers. The genes so far identified for hereditary cataracts in both humans and animal models encode structural lens proteins, gap junction proteins, membrane proteins and regulatory proteins involved in lens development. Understanding of the mechanisms of hereditary cataract may also help us understand the manner in which environmental and nutritional factors act on the lens to promote opacification.
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Is there a minimum endothelial cell count for a clear cornea after penetrating keratoplasty?
SK Rao, AT Leung, AL Young, DS Fan, DS Lam
January-March 2000, 48(1):71-2
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Tonometry in normal and scarred corneas, and in postkeratoplasty eyes : A comparative study of the Goldmann, the ProTon and the Schiotz tonometers.
AK Jain, JS Saini, R Gupta
January-March 2000, 48(1):25-32
PURPOSE: Clinical comparison of intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), the ProTon tonometer (PT), and the Schiotz tonometer (ST), in normal eyes, eyes with scarred corneas and postkeratoplasty eyes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IOP readings with GAT, PT, and ST were compared in 125 eyes with normal corneas (Group A), 17 eyes with scarred corneas (Group B), and in 21 postkeratoplasty eyes (Group C). The data were statistically analysed at 95% confidence interval; linear regression analysis and paired t-test were done. RESULTS: The mean differences and their standard deviation [SD] between GAT and PT readings, and GAT and ST readings respectively were: [1] in Group A: -0.23 [SD 2.75] mmHg and +0.24 [SD 3.18] mmHg respectively; [2] in Group B: -1.8 [SD 12.67] mmHg and -4.5 [SD 9.95 mmHg; and [3] in Group C: +0.24 [SD 8.72] mmHg and -0.12 [SD 8.7] mmHg. They were not statistically significant. In Group A the 95% confidence interval between GAT and PT readings was -5.27 mmHg to 5.73 mmHg, and between GAT and ST readings, -6.12 mmHg to 6.59 mmHg. Ninety six [77%] eyes with the PT and 84 [69%] eyes with ST measurements were within 3 mmHg of GAT pressure. The correlation coefficients [r] for PT and ST were 0.93 [P = 0.0000] and 0.88 [P = 0.0000] respectively. In Group B 95% confidence interval between GAT and PT readings was -27.17 mmHg to 23.51 mmHg, and between GAT and ST measurement, -24.37 mmHg to 15.44 mmHg. The correlation coefficients [r] for the PT and ST were 0.112 [P = 0.660] and 0.630 [P = 0.006] respectively. In group C, the 95% confidence interval between GAT and PT measurements was -17.20 mmHg to 17.67 mmHg, and between GAT and ST measurements, -17.51 mmHg to 17.27 mmHg. The correlation coefficients [r] for the PT and the ST were 0.780 [P = 0.0000] and 0.740 [P = 0.0001] respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice PT appears to have a higher level of accuracy than ST in normal corneas. In scarred corneas and post-penetrating keratoplasty eyes, because of high SD for mean differences and wide confidence interval of 95%, both PT and ST are inaccurate in measuring IOP as compared to GAT in such eyes.
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Adaptation of WHOQOL as health-related quality of life instrument to develop a vision-specific instrument.
R Dandona, L Dandona, CA McCarty, GN Rao
January-March 2000, 48(1):65-70
The WHOQOL instrument was adapted as a health-related QOL instrument for a population-based epidemiologic study of eye diseases in southern India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS). A follow-up question was added to each item in WHOQOL to determine whether the decrease in QOL was due to any health reasons including eye-related reasons. Modifications in WHOQOL and translation in local language were done through the use of the focus groups including health professionals and people not related to health care. The modified instrument has 28 items across 6 domains of the WHOQOL and was translated into the local language, Telugu, using the pragmatic approach. It takes 10-20 minutes to be administered by a trained interviewer. Reliability was within acceptable range. This health-related QOL instrument is being used in the population-based study APEDS to develop a vision-specific QOL instrument which could potentially be used to assess the impact of visual impairment on QOL across different cultures and for use in evaluating eye-care interventions. This health-related QOL instrument could also be used to develop other disease-specific instruments as it allows assessment of the extent to which various aspects of QOL are affected by a variety of health problems.
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The year 2000: Looking back and looking forward
T Das
January-March 2000, 48(1):1-2
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Inferior limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for recurrent pterygium
AK Wong, SK Rao, AT Leung, AS Poon, DS Lam
January-March 2000, 48(1):21-4
Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of inferior limbal-conjunctival autograft (LCAT) transplantation in the surgical management of recurrent pterygium. Methods: Prospective non-comparative case series. Inferior limbal-conjunctival autografting was performed on 11 patients (11 eyes) with recurrent pterygium. Pterygium recurrence was considered a surgical failure. Results: Recurrence of pterygium was noted in two (18.2%) eyes, after a mean follow up of 16.2 0-9 months (range: 10 - 19 months). Neither recurrence required further surgical treatment. Nonprogressive pseudopterygium formation was noted at the donor site in five (45.5%) eyes. Conclusion: Inferior LCAT appears to be a safe and effective option in the management of recurrent pterygium. In patients with suspected or proven glaucoma, this may be the procedure of choice, if mitomycin C is contraindicated.
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Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia
P Sharma, BS Aslam, S Saxena
January-March 2000, 48(1):15-9
Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG) in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria) and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades), and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30/sec (p=0.007). The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively). The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001) for both 15/sec and 30/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.
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Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury
L Gopal, AS Banker, T Sharma, S Parikh, PS Bhende, S Chopra
January-March 2000, 48(1):33-6
Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes) and macular scarring (1 eye). Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.
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Papilloedema with peripapillary retinal haemorrhages in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with cryptococcal meningitis
RR Battu, J Biswas, N Jayakumar, HN Madhavan, N Kumarsamy, S Solomon
January-March 2000, 48(1):47-9
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Unilateral visual impairment in an urban population in Southern India
L Dandona, R Dandona, M Srinivas, P Mandal, CA McCarty, GN Rao
January-March 2000, 48(1):59-64
This study assessed the prevalence and causes of unilateral visual impairment in the urban population of Hyderabad city as part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling was used to select 2,954 subjects from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad. Eligible subjects underwent detailed eye examination including logMAR visual acuity, refraction, slitlamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilatation, cataract grading, and stereoscopic evaluation of fundus. Automated threshold visual fields and slitlamp and fundus photography were done when indicated by standardised criteria. Unilateral visual impairment was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 in the worse eye and ≥6/12 in the better eye, which was further divided into unilateral blindness (visual acuity <6/60 in the worse eye) and unilateral moderate visual impairment (visual acuity <6/18-6/60 in the worse eye). A total of 2,522 subjects (85.4% of eligible), including 1,399 ≥30 years old, participated in the study. In addition to the 1% blindness and 7.2% moderate visual impairment (based on bilateral visual impairment criteria) reported earlier in this sample, 139 subjects had unilateral visual impairment, an age-gender-adjusted prevalence of 3.8% (95% confidence interval 2.7-4.9%). The major causes of this visual impairment 39.9% were refractive error (42.9%), cataract (14.4%), corneal disease (11.5%), and retinal disease (11.2%). Of this unilateral visual impairment was blindness. The major causes of unilateral blindness were corneal disease (23.2%), cataract (22.5%), retinal disease (18%), and optic atrophy (12.9%). On the other hand, the predominant cause of unilateral moderate visual impairment was refractive error (67%) followed by cataract (9%). Of the total unilateral visual impairment, 34.3% was present in those <30 years old and 36.2% in those 30-49 years old. Unilateral visual impairment afflicts approximately 1 in 25 persons in this urban population. A large proportion of this unilateral visual impairment is present in younger age groups. The causes of unilateral visual impairment, like those of bilateral visual impairment in this population, are varied, suggesting therefore, that in addition to the current focus of eye care in India predominantly on cataract, other causes of visual impairment need to be addressed as well.
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A rare case of both eyelids swelling: Isolated conjunctival amyloidosis
P Chaturvedi, M Lala, S Desai, V Sanghvi
January-March 2000, 48(1):56-7
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Possible role of polyamines in gyrate atrophy.
KN Sulochana, S Ramakrishnan, L Mahesh, R Punitham
January-March 2000, 48(1):37-43
PURPOSE: Gyrate atrophy (GA) is marked by hyperornithinemia and lowered ornithine amino transferase (OAT). However there are patients of GA without hyperornithinemia and those with hyperornithinemia without GA. Some cases of GA have been reported to have low lysine. The purpose of the study was to determine if polyamines, the metabolites of ornithine, and lysine have any diagnostic role in GA. METHODS: Ornithine in plasma was estimated by two-dimensional paper chromatography, with elution of the coloured spot, and the absorbance measured using a spectrophotometer at 560 nm. OAT assay in lymphocytes was done spectrophotometrically using ornithine as substrate. Blood and urinary polyamines were extracted with n-butanol, benzoylated and analysed with HPLC; putrescine, spermine, spermidine, and cadaverine were assayed individually at 254 nm with the UV detector using ODS, G18 column with 63% methanol as solvent. RESULTS: Of the 7 patients investigated, 6 had features typical of GA. One was diagnosed to have atypical retinitis pigmentosa (case 3). The first five cases had elevated ornithine and diminished OAT, but cases 6 and 7 had near-normal ornithine and case 7 had near-normal OAT. However, all 7 patients had increased levels of total polyamines in urine compared to normals. Five had increased putrescine and three had increased spermine. All the 7 had decreased cadaverine in urine. Thus, though there were inconsistencies with ornithine and OAT, all the 7 patients had elevated polyamines from ornithine and decreased cadaverine. CONCLUSION: In addition to estimating ornithine and OAT in GA, it is suggested that urinary polyamines may be analysed as the latter appears to correlate better with the clinical condition and help in the diagnosis to a greater extent. Moreover, while ornithine is an innocuous amino acid, polyamines are known to damage DNA and proteins.
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Micrococcal endophthalmitis following extracapsular cataract extraction with foldable silicone intraocular lens implantation
R Fogla, J Biswas, S Parikh, HN Madhavan
January-March 2000, 48(1):50-2
  3,912 0 1
Open angle glaucoma as a manifestation of Waardenburg's syndrome.
V Gupta, HC Aggarwal
January-March 2000, 48(1):49-50
Waardenburg's syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder, with several clinical signs, each with variable penetrance. We report this case of Waardenburg's syndrome with bilateral open-angle glaucoma with unique gonioscopic findings.
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Kearns Sayre syndrome: An atypical presentation
Rajakannan, Gayathri, W Prasad, R Ramakrishnan, NV Prajna
January-March 2000, 48(1):54-5
  3,476 0 3