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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2000| April-June  | Volume 48 | Issue 2  
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Spectrum of aetiological agents of postoperative endophthalmitis and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates.
AR Anand, KL Therese, HN Madhavan
April-June 2000, 48(2):123-8
PURPOSE: To determine the spectrum of infectious agents of postoperative endophthalmitis, the relationship with the time of onset of symptoms after surgery and the antibiotic susceptibilities of the aerobic bacterial isolates. METHODS: A retrospective review of microbiological records from January 1995 to December 1998 yielded 173 isolates from intraocular specimen of 170 patients with culture-proven postoperative endophthalmitis. Antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates was determined for various ocular antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion test. Based on the time of onset of illness, clinical presentation was classified into acute, delayed and chronic. RESULTS: Among 170 cases, 71 (41.7%) were attributable to gram-negative, 64 (37.6%) to gram-positive bacteria, and 37 (21.8%) to fungi. Gram-negative bacteria included P. aeruginosa (29;17.1%), other Pseudomonas spp (15;8.8%), non-fermenters (18;10.6%) and others (10;5.8%). Among these, 40 of 72 (55.5%) were sensitive to gentamicin, 47 of 72 (65.2%) to cefotaxime, 47 of 69 (68.1%) to amikacin, 52 of 71 (73.2%) to ciprofloxacin, and 25 of 40 (62.5%) to ceftazidime. The gram-positive bacteria included S. epidermidis (22;12.9%), S. aureus (13;7.6%), P. acnes (10;5.9%), Enterococcus spp (4;2.3%), Streptococcus spp (7;4.1%) and others (8;4.8%). Among these, 41 of 53 (77.3%) were sensitive to gentamicin, 47 of 53 (88.6%) to cefotaxime, 46 of 52 (88.4%) to ciprofloxacin, 38 of 41 (92.6%) to cefazolin and 27 of 37 (72.9%) to ceftazidime. All gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: In this large series of postoperative endophthalmitis, gram-negative bacilli followed by fungi accounted for the largest number of cases. A high degree of resistance of gram-negative bacilli to gentamicin, cefotaxime, amikacin and ceftazidime was recorded.
  44 11,710 0
Limbal stem cell deficiency : Concept, aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.
HS Dua, JS Saini, A Azuara-Blanco, P Gupta
April-June 2000, 48(2):83-92
Defects in renewal and repair of ocular surface as a result of limbal stem cell deficiency are now known to cause varying ocular surface morbidity including persistent photophobia, repeated and persistent surface breakdown and overt conjunctivalisation of the cornea. Ocular conditions with abnormalities of ocular surface repair include pterygium, limbal tumours, aniridia, severe scarring following burns, cicatricial pemphigoid and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, sequelae of mustard gas exposure and Herpes simplex epithelial disease, radiation keratopathy, contact lens induced keratopathy, neuroparalytic keratitis and drug toxicity. Restoring ocular health in these eyes has traditionally been frustrating. An understanding of these intricate cell renewal and maintenance processes has spurred the evolution in recent years of new treatment methods for several blinding diseases of the anterior segment; many more exciting modalities are in the offing. However, there is inadequate awareness among ophthalmologists about the current principles of management of ocular surface disorders. The purpose of this article is to help elucidate the important principles and current treatment methods relevant to ocular surface disorders.
  42 33,543 17
Towards achieving small-incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time.
R Thomas, T Kuriakose, R George
April-June 2000, 48(2):145-51
A surgical approach designed to reliably attain the modern goal of small incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time is described. Phacoemulsification as well as a manual small incision technique is utilised to achieve the desired outcome as often as possible and for all types of cataracts. The logic, and required surgical steps are described and illustrated. This surgical technique allows the advantages of small incision surgery to be reliably achieved. The method is flexible and allows decisions and steps to be modified depending on the skill and comfort zone of the individual surgeon.
  18 8,044 2
The role of central corneal thickness in the diagnosis of glaucoma
R Thomas, S Korah, J Muliyil
April-June 2000, 48(2):107-11
Purpose: To determine the effect of central corneal thickness (CCT) on applanation tonometry and any resultant misclassification of normals as ocular hypertension. Method: The central corneal thickness was measured using the ultrasound pachometer in 50 normals, 25 glaucoma and 23 ocular hypertensive patients. The student's "t" test was used to determine any significant difference in CCT between the three groups. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean CCT of the ocular hypertensives ( 0.574 + 0.033mm) as compared to the glaucomas (0.534 0.030mm) and normals (0.537 0.034mm). Applying the described correction factor for corneal thickness, 39% of eyes with ocular hypertension were found to have a corrected IOP of 21mmHg or less. Conclusions: Increased corneal thickness in ocular hypertension may lead to an overestimation of IOP in 39% of cases. Measurement of central corneal thickness is advisable when the clinical findings do not correlate with the applanation IOP.
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Visual outcome following cataract surgery in rural punjab.
R Anand, A Gupta, J Ram, U Singh, R Kumar
April-June 2000, 48(2):153-8
In a cluster sample survey in rural areas of Punjab visual outcome after cataract surgery was assessed. Three hundred patients (428 cataract operated eyes) were included in the study from 24 sampled villages. The mean age at cataract extraction was 61.70 +/- 9.82 years. The average interval since the cataract surgery was 7.05 +/- 5.86 years (range 0.11-32 years). Of the 428 operated eyes, 72 (16.82%) were blind (VA < 3/60), 162 (37.85%) had low visual acuity (VA 3/60-< 6/18) and 194 (45.33%) eyes gained good visual acuity (VA > or = 6/18). Cataract surgery related complications were the principal causes leading to blindness in 50 of 72 eyes; these included corneal oedema, (17/72;23.3%), retinal detachment (14/72;19.4%), and aphakic glaucoma (13/72;18.05%). This study emphasizes the need to improve the qualitative aspect of cataract surgery including long-term follow up in rural India.
  13 6,623 0
Surgery for stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity: The learning curve and evolving technique
L Gopal, T Sharma, M Shanmugam, SS Badrinath, A Sharma, SG Agraharam, A Choudhary
April-June 2000, 48(2):101-6
Purpose: To describe our experience with management of eyes with stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) Methods: Closed vitreoretinal surgery was done on 96 eyes of patients with stage 5 ROP. Lens was sacrificed in all but one eye. Surgery involved an attempt to clear all preretinal tissue and open the peripheral trough all round. In most instances bimanual surgery under viscoelastic was performed. Results: At last follow up, anatomical success (defined as attached posterior pole) was achieved in 22.5% cases. Significant postoperative problems included reproliferation and secondary glaucoma. Only two infants obtained mobile vision. Conclusion: Late identification of disease, lack of prior treatment such as laser or cryo, and higher incidence of narrow-narrow funnel configuration were responsible for the poor surgical results noted in this series. The poor surgical and functional results reemphasise the need for prompt screening and management of infants at risk.
  12 13,154 1
Diffuse malignant melanoma of the choroid simulating metastatic tumour in the choroid
J Biswas, R Raghavendra, V Ratra, S Krishnakumar, L Gopal, MP Shanmugam
April-June 2000, 48(2):137-40
  9 4,574 0
Orbital abscess: Management and outcome
N Suneetha, RR Battu, RK Thomas, A Bosco
April-June 2000, 48(2):129-34
Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis, management and outcome of various types of orbital abscess. Methods: The medical records of 13 patients diagnosed and treated for orbital abscess were reviewed. The sources of infection included: paranasal sinusitis (n = 5), odontogenic origin of infection (n = 4), one each, temporal fossa abscess, palatal abscess, furuncle on the nose, and secondary to retrobulbar injection of steroid. Computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of an abscess in all 13 cases. Associated findings on CT scan included: sinus disease (n = 8), cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2) and subdural empyema (n = 2). All patients were treated with intensive, multiple, intravenous antibiotics and early surgical drainage. Results: Purulent material collected surgically from the orbit cultured Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3), two each Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter species and one each β-haemolytic Streptococci, Citrobacter frundi and Enterobacter. Final visual acuity was good in 6 patients (6/12 - 6/6) and no light perception in 6 others. Visual acuity could not be recorded in the infant. The other complications were intracranial abscess (n = 4), cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2) and restricted ocular motility (n = 1). Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is necessary, along with early institution of appropriate diagnostic imaging, and aggressive medical and surgical treatment for a favourable outcome in cases of orbital abscess.
  9 15,248 0
Significant impact of limbal epithelial stem cells.
SC Tseng
April-June 2000, 48(2):79-81
  7 6,778 0
Intralenticular foreign bodies: Report of eight cases and review of management
R Arora, L Sanga, M Kumar, M Taneja
April-June 2000, 48(2):119-22
Purpose: The management of intralenticular foreign bodies (ILFBs) with or without cataract has varied from time to time in the last century. We evaluated the surgical removal of the ILFBs with cataract extraction as a single-stage procedure. Methods: Eight consecutive cases with intralenticular foreign bodies presenting to the trauma centre at our institute, were included in the study. Planned ILFB removal with cataract extraction and IOL implantation as a single-stage procedure was done in all the patients. They were followed up from 2 months to 2 years after the surgery. Results: ILFBs were removed with Kelman-Mcpherson forceps in seven cases and in one it was expressed with the nucleus during extra capsular cataract extraction. Co-existent posterior capsular tears were seen in two eyes, of which only one needed a localized vitrectomy. Posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation was possible without any complication in all the cases. Postoperative uveitis seen in three cases was easily controlled with periocular steroids. Best corrected visual acuity at last examination was 6/9 or better in 7 cases and 6/12 in one case with posterior capsular opacification. Conclusions: Timing and necessity of ILFB removal may be adjusted according to the foreign body characteristics and associated ocular trauma, choosing, as far as possible, the least traumatic procedure. Use of forceps rather than magnets is safer for the removal of the ILFB. Co-existent posterior capsular tears need to be anticipated and dealt with when encountered.
  5 6,540 0
Scientific literature and gospel truth.
SS Hayreh
April-June 2000, 48(2):93-9
We live in an age of science, an age in which science impacts practically every phase of our life. In the field of medicine, our entire understanding of diseases and their management depends on scientific knowledge. To obtain that knowledge, we rely on the published scientific literature. Therefore, the sanctity of science must be fiercely guarded. In medicine, true science leads to valid treatment--and preservation of the life, health and (for ophthalmologists) eyesight of our patients. A corrupted science results in corrupted scientific knowledge which in turn, in medicine, leads to wrong treatment and harm to the patients.
  4 5,228 0
Herpes simplex virus DNA in the lens one year after an episode of retinitis
LK Therese, K Priya, SK Rao, J Biswas, HN Madhavan
April-June 2000, 48(2):140-1
  3 3,016 0
Albendazole therapy for a recurrent orbital hydatid cyst
R Sihota, T Sharma
April-June 2000, 48(2):142-3
  3 3,851 0
An outbreak of acute conjunctivitis caused by Coxsackie virus A 24.
HN Madhavan, J Malathy, K Priya
April-June 2000, 48(2):159-159
  2 4,333 0
Osseous choristoma of the choroid
L Verma, P Venkatesh, NC Lakshmaiah, SP Garg, HK Tewari
April-June 2000, 48(2):135-7
  - 6,309 0
On the ways we do science.
D Balasubramanian
April-June 2000, 48(2):81-2
  - 3,098 0
Incidence and management of posteriorly dislocated nuclear fragments following phacoemulsification
S Gopal
April-June 2000, 48(2):159-61
  - 2,720 0
Fellow eye treatment in excimer photo refractive keratectomy
SK Rao, BN Mukesh, AS Saraniya, G Sitalakshmi, P Padmanabhan
April-June 2000, 48(2):113-8
Purpose: To describe symmetry of response in fellow eyes of patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia, analyse the risk factors leading to asymmetry in response and to determine if delayed treatment of the second eye increases safety and predictability of PRK. Methods: Retrospective review of case records of 133 patients who underwent bilateral myopic PRK and had a minimum follow up of 6 months in both eyes. Results: Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent (SE) refraction within 1D of emmetropia, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and corneal haze were not significantly different in fellow eyes of patients undergoing PRK for myopia. Of 87 eyes in group 1 (myopia <6D), 96.6% had uncorrected visual acuity ≥6/ 12, 89.7% were within 1D of emmetropia, none lost ≥1 line BCVA, and none had haze ≥grade 3. Similar results for 98 eyes in group II (myopia 6 to 9.9D) were 75.6%, 55.1%, 2.0% and 2.0% respectively. For 81 eyes in group III (myopia ≥ 10D) the results were 42.7%, 33.3%, 8.6%, and 4.9% respectively. Among 84 patients with similar preoperative myopia in both eyes, 54 (64.3%) patients had a postoperative SE difference ≤ ID in fellow eyes. Risk factors for asymmetric response among fellow eyes included increasing preoperative myopia (p<0.001) and dissimilar treatment technique in the two eyes (p=0.03). Corneal haze did not increase significantly after the third postoperative month. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that considerable symmetry of response exists in fellow eyes of patients undergoing myopic PRK. Early PRK in the fellow eye of patients with < 6 D myopia is safe and allows quick visual rehabilitation of the patient. In patients with myopia ≥6D, a 3-month interval before treating the second eye may improve the safety of the procedure.
  - 4,340 0