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   2001| January-March  | Volume 49 | Issue 1  
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Prevention of postoperative infections in ophthalmic surgery
Jagat Ram, Sushmita Kaushik, Gagandeep S Brar, Neelam Taneja, Amod Gupta
January-March 2001, 49(1):59-69
Postoperative endophthalmitis is a serious, vision-threatening complication of intraocular surgery. Better instrumentation, surgical techniques, prophylactic antibiotics and better understanding of asepsis have significantly reduced the incidence of this complication. Postoperative endophthalmitis may occur as an isolated event or as a cluster infection. Topical antibiotics, preoperative periocular preparation with povidone-iodine combined with a sterile operating room protocol significantly reduce the incidence of isolated postoperative endophthalmitis. The role of antibiotics in the irrigating fluid and subconjunctival antibiotics remains controversial. Cluster infections on the other hand are more likely to occur due to the use of contaminated fluids/viscoelastics or a breach in operating room asepsis. Prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis requires strict adherence to operating room norms, with all involved personnel discharging their assigned roles faithfully.
  22,535 5 3
Carotid artery disease and ocular vascular disorders
Nazimul Hussain, Subhadra Jalali, Subhash Kaul
January-March 2001, 49(1):5-14
  12,700 2 5
Profile of glaucoma in a major eye hospital in North India
Jayachandra Das, Sharad Bhomaj, Zia Chaudhuri, Pankaj Sharma, Arun Negi, Abhrajit Dasgupta
January-March 2001, 49(1):25-30
Purpose: To study the clinical profile and distribution of various subtypes of glaucoma in a referral practice in North India. Method: A retrospective analysis was done of 2425 patients who attended the glaucoma clinic in a tertiary eye-care centre for five years from Januaryl995 to December 1999. A detailed history was obtained and a thorough examination was performed, including gonioscopy, disc assessment, applanation tonometry and automated perimetry. Diurnal variation of IOP and provocative tests for glaucoma were done where applicable. Result: Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) was the most common glaucoma subtype. The primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to the PACG ratio was 37:63. Chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG) was the most common PACG subtype. The majority of CACG cases were relatively asymptomatic. Male dominance was seen for POAG, juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), CACG, normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and secondary glaucomas. Female dominance was seen for ocular hypertension (OHT), acute or intermittent ACG and developmental glaucomas. The mean age in years at presentation was POAG: 60.54 years (males 61.54 years, females 59.01 years) and PACG: 55.13 years (males 57.25 years, females 53.60). The three common secondary glaucomas were: glaucoma secondary to adherent leucoma, aphakic and pseudophakic glaucomas and traumatic glaucomas. Advanced glaucoma was detected in 42 to 53% of patients and bilateral blindness in 8 to 14% of patients in various subtypes. Conclusion: Compared to Caucasians, glaucoma patients in North India seem to present nearly a decade earlier and the disease is more advanced at presentation. While PACG is the most commonly encountered glaucoma, NTG and exfoliative glaucoma are relatively rare.
  10,643 1 2
Occupational open globe injuries
Usha Vasu, Andrew Vasnaik, RR Battu, Mathew Kurian, Sony George
January-March 2001, 49(1):43-47
  8,287 1 7
Planimetric optic disc parameters in normal eyes: a population-based study in South India
G Chandra Sekhar, Kalyani Prasad, Rakhi Dandona, Rajesh K John, Lalit Dandona
January-March 2001, 49(1):19-23
Purpose: To study the optic disc parameters of normal eyes in a population-based south Indian study. Methods: One hundred and fifty three subjects from a population-based sample of 1060 included in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey (APEDS) were enrolled in the optic disc study. The male-female ratio, the refractive error and distribution of other ocular parameters in the disc study subjects and the APEDS were not significantly different. Magnification corrected morphometry of optic disc photographs obtained by Zeiss telocentric fundus camera was carried out in one randomly chosen eye of each of these 143 subjects. Results: The mean optic disc parameters with the 95% confidence intervals for the distribution were: disc area 3.37 mm2 (2.04 - 4.7), vertical disc diameter 2.12 mm (1.67 - 2.57), vertical cup to disc ratio 0.37 (0.19 -0.55) and neuroretinal rim area 2.8 mm2 (1.76 - 3.84). The disc area, the vertical cup to disc ratio and the rim area showed a normal distribution. The cup to disc ratio correlated with the vertical disc diameter but the association was not strong. Conclusion: The disc area, the vertical cup to disc ratio and the neuroretinal rim area are normally distributed in the South Indian population. The normal optic disc parameters would form a basis for future comparisons in different forms of glaucoma.
  7,349 0 7
Postoperative Astigmatism after Intracapsular Cataract Surgery: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial in Nepal
Dipak Nag, Albrecht Hennig, Allen Foster, Jennifer R Evans, Damodar Pradhan, Gordon J Johnson, Richard PL Wormald
January-March 2001, 49(1):31-35
  6,394 1 2
Genetic profile of 81 retinoblastoma patients from a referral hospital in Southern India
Rajasekhar Harini, Md Ata-ur-Rasheed, Mahesh P Shanmugam, Jacob Amali, Debashish Das, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel
January-March 2001, 49(1):37-42
Purpose: To determine chromosomal abnormalities and inheritance pattern in patients with retinoblastoma from a referral hospital in southern India. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one retinoblastoma patients from 78 families were included in this study. Peripheral venous blood was taken for chromosomal analysis and pedigree was ascertained for segregation analysis. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.7:1, 55.56% were bilateral retinoblastoma, the mean age of onset was 12.37 months in bilateral and 33.07 months in unilateral cases (p=0.048). Majority (90.12%) had sporadic inheritance and 6.17% had autosomal dominant inheritance. In chromosomal abnormalities, 8.33% had 13q14 deletion, three cases had de novo balanced translocations. Conclusion: The age of onset of the disease was much earlier in the bilateral cases compared to unilateral cases. Sporadic inheritance was predominant while only a small percentage of patients had autosomal dominant inheritance. The percentage of patients with 13q14 deletion was higher than reported in the literature and three novel chromosomal translocations were observed. This is one of the largest series of cases reported from India.
  6,146 1 4
Frosted retinal branch angiitis in an immunocompetent adult due to herpes simplex virus
Radha Shenoy, El Nour Mohamed Elagib, Huda Al-Siyabi
January-March 2001, 49(1):56-57
  4,797 0 3
Vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome following Injury-induced progressive vitiligo
Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta, P Bambery, BD Radotra, SS Panday
January-March 2001, 49(1):53-55
  4,784 7 2
Panophthalmitis due to Rhizopus in an AIDS Patient: A clinicopathological study
Tapan K Samanta, Jyotirmay Biswas, Lingam Gopal, Anand A R, N Kumarasamy, Suniti Solomon
January-March 2001, 49(1):49-51
  4,443 0 -
Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs
Shalini Tyagi, Jagat Ram, Pallab Ray, Gagandeep S Brar, Amod Gupta
January-March 2001, 49(1):15-18
Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs) has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.
  4,401 7 -
Is continuous research necessary in management of post cataract surgery endophthalmitis!
Taraprasad Das
January-March 2001, 49(1):1-2
  4,322 0 -
Malignant melanoma of the choroid with vitiligo
H Vijaya Pai, KR Satish, Purnima Maravoor
January-March 2001, 49(1):51-53
  4,040 5 1
Book review
Pradeep Venkatesh
January-March 2001, 49(1):71-72
  3,302 0 -
Unwrapping the human genome
Mohan Rao
January-March 2001, 49(1):3-3
  2,915 3 -
Postoperative astigmatism after intracapsular cataract surgery: results of a randomised controlled trial in Nepal
Dipak Nag, Albrecht Hennig, Allen Foster, Jennifer R Evans, Damodar Pradhan, Gordon J Johnson, Richard PL Wormald
January-March 2001, 49(1):31-35
Purpose: Postoperative astigmatism following intracapsular cataract extraction with or without anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation is reported as an outcome from a randomised controlled trial. Methods: Five hundred and two of 1002 eyes randomised to intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber intraocular lens (ICCE/AC IOL) and 417 of 998 eyes to intracapsular cataract extraction with aphakic spectacles (ICCE/AS) were seen for objective refraction one year after surgery. The prevalence and axis of astigmatism were evaluated using univariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to compare the postoperative astigmatism between the groups. Results: Acceptable astigmatism (-0.5 to 0.0 DCyl) in the AC IOL group was found in 60 (12.0%) patients (95% CI 9.1%-14.9%) and in the aphakic spectacles group (AS) in 69 (16.5%) patients (95% CI 12.9%-20.1%), moderate astigmatism (-1.0 to-1.5 DCyl) was found in 153 (30.4%) patients (95% CI 26.4-34.6%) in ACIOL group and in 288 (69.1%) patients (95% CI 64.6%-73.6%) in AS group; and large astigmatism (-2.0 to - 8.0 D Cyl) was found in 289 (57.6%) patients (95% CI 53.1%-61.6%) in ACIOL group and in 60 (14.4%) patients (95% CI 11.0%-17.8%) in AS group. Large astigmatism was approximately four times more common in the ICCE/AC IOL group compared to ICCE/AS group. In both groups, most patients had "against-the-rule" astigmatism, 446 (88.8%) (95%CI 86.0%-91.6%) in AC IOL group and 348 (83.5%) (95%CI 79.9%-87.1%) in AS group. Conclusion: Astigmatism is common after intracapsular cataract extraction. Insertion of an anterior chamber IOL increases the risk of astigmatism.
  77 0 2