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   2001| April-June  | Volume 49 | Issue 2  
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Interpreting automated perimetry
Ravi Thomas, Ronnie George
April-June 2001, 49(2):125-140
Visual field testing is mandatory for many ophthalmic conditions including glaucoma. The current gold standard for visual field testing is automated perimetry. In this article we familiarize the reader with the components of an automated perimetry printout. We describe a systematic approach that leads to a thorough interpretation of the printout. With the help of examples the reader should be able to learn to identify a normal field, detect the presence of a field defect, determine whether it is due to glaucoma, and establish progression, if any.
  100,442 1 2
Childhood proptosis: The invaluable, though often overlooked peripheral blood smear
Anita Sethi, Supriyo Ghose, Sumeet Gujral, Paresh Jain, Rajive Kumar
April-June 2001, 49(2):121-123
  12,709 4 3
A prospective study of 413 cases of lens-induced glaucoma in Nepal
Damodar Pradhan, Albrecht Hennig, Jitendra Kumar, Allen Foster
April-June 2001, 49(2):103-107
Purpose: To determine the frequency and types of lens-induced glaucoma (LIG), reasons for late presentation and outcome of current management. Methods: Prospective case series of 413 patients/eyes with LIG over a 12-month period in 1998; 311 of these patients underwent cataract surgery. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP) were pre-and postoperatively assessed. Results: Four hundred and thirteen (1.5%) of 27,073 senile cataracts seen in the outpatient department of Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Nepal presented with LIG. There were 298 (72%) phacomorphic cases and 115 (28%) phacolytic glaucoma. Pain for more than 10 days was reported by 293 (71%) patients. The majority, 258 (62.4%), travelled a distance of more than 100 kms to the hospital. The major reasons for late presentation were "no escort" in 143 (34.6%) and "lack of money" in 128 (31.0%) cases. At presentation the IOP was more than 30 mm Hg in 327 (79%) eyes. Following cataract surgery, 251 (80.7%) had 21 mm Hg or less at discharge. The visual acuity was hand-movement or less before surgery in all eyes; at discharge 120 of 311 operated eyes (38.6%) achieved 6/60 or better, 97 (31.2%) less than 6/60, and 94 (30.2%) less than 3/60. The main causes for poor outcome in 94 cases were optic atrophy in 32 (34%) eyes, uveitis in 25 (26.6%)eyes and corneal oedema in 24 (25.5%) eyes. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of visually disabling cataract. There is a need to educate both the patient and the cataract surgeon of the dangers of lens-induced glaucoma and of the poor outcome if treatment is delayed.
  7,397 4 7
Multiple cranial nerve palsy in an HIV-positive patient
Satya Kama, Jyotirmay Biswas, N Kumarasamy, Praveen Sharma
April-June 2001, 49(2):118-120
  7,220 0 -
Fish hook injury to the eyelid
Sathish Srinivasan, Shona Macleod
April-June 2001, 49(2):115-116
  5,284 0 2
Scleral suspension pars-plana lensectomy for ectopia lentis followed by suture fixation of intraocular lens
Sandip Mitra, Anuradha Ganesh
April-June 2001, 49(2):109-113
Purpose: To describe a simple technique of scleral suspension-pars plana lensectomy (SS-PPL) in acquired and congenital ectopia lentis and scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL). Materials and Methods: Twenty eyes of 16 patients (12 unilateral and 4 bilateral cases of "essential familial lens subluxation") aged 10-40 years (mean 25 years) underwent SS-PPL with implantation of scleral fixated IOL. Indications for surgery were best-corrected visual acuity <6/18, bisection of pupil by the lens, and lens-induced glaucoma. Prerequisites for SS-PPL were, visibility of part of the lens in the pupillary area and soft lens. Results: Postoperative visual acuity ranged from 6/6 - 6/36. Lens tilt in 3 cases(15%) and small decentration in 2 cases(10%) were seen; however these did not seriously compromise the visual result. Scant vitreous bleeding on the first postoperative day was seen in 3 cases (15%). Conclusion: The advantages of the scleral suspension of subluxated lens prior to lensectomy include stabilization; it allows proper viewing of the lens, avoids injury to the iris and cliary body during lensectomy and reduces the possibility of dislocation of the lens.
  5,010 3 2
Threshold retinopathy of prematurity: ocular changes and sequelae following cryotherapy
Mangat R Dogra, Subina Narang, Champakali Biswas, Amod Gupta, Anil Narang
April-June 2001, 49(2):97-101
Purpose: To determine ocular changes and sequelae following cryotherapy for threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: This is a retrospective study of 49 eyes of 26 premature babies with threshold ROP treated with cryotherapy between 1995 and 1998. All eyes included in the study had favourable structural outcome after cryotherapy. Follow-up examination of all babies was done 12 - 62 months (average 28 months) after cryotherapy. Visual axis, fixation pattern, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic refraction and dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy were undertaken in all eyes during follow-up. Results: Posterior pole retinal residuae observed following cryotherapy were tortousity of blood vessels in 32 (65.3%), narrow temporal arcade in 22 (44.89%), temporal crescent in 17 (34.69%), disc drag in 13 (26.53%) and macular heterotopia in 7 (14.28%) eyes. Myopia was observed in 20 (40.82%) eyes and strabismus in 5 (19.23%) babies. The significant risk factor for ocular changes was ROP with more clock hours of involvement (p < 0.05). Higher period of gestation was associated with posterior pole changes (p< 0.05). Conclusions: All premature babies with threshold ROP treated with cryotherapy require frequent and long-term follow up to look for retinal residuae, refractive status, and ocular motility disorders.
  5,009 1 2
Role of Cytokines in experimental and clinical uveitis
Vijay K Singh, Geeta Rai, Shyam S Agarwal
April-June 2001, 49(2):81-90
Uveitis is a major cause of visual impairment. Experimental autoimmune uveitis mimics the clinical conditions of posterior uveitis in many ways. T-cells (particularly CD4[+] helper-T-cells) have been shown to play an important role in pathogenesis of experimental and clinical uveitis. Based on the pattern of cytokine they secrete, CD4[+] helper cells have been divided into Thl and Th2 subsets. Various Thl and Th2 cytokines appear to be involved in the pathogenesis and/or recovery from uveitis. This article discusses in detail the uveitopathogenic and therapeutic potential of Thl and Th2 cytokines in experimental and clinical uveitis.
  4,043 1 1
Conjunctival amyloidosis of both eyelids
Gabriel Rodrigues, Vikram Sanghvi, Murad Lala
April-June 2001, 49(2):116-117
  3,373 0 1
Assessing the role of subconjunctival versus intrascleral application of Mitomycin-C in high-risk trabeculectomies
Harish C Agarwal, Deepali Saigal, Ramanjit Sihota
April-June 2001, 49(2):91-95
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of subconjunctival and intrascleral applications of mitomycin C (MMC) in trabeculectomy for high-risk glaucomas. Methodology: A randomized prospective clinical study was conducted on 41 consecutive eyes with a high risk of glaucoma surgery failure. Patients were randomized to trabeculectomy and application of subconjunctival MMC or to trabeculectomy and application of intrascleral MMC. MMC solution 0.2 mg/ml was applied for 3 minutes under the conjunctival flap overlying the proposed site of trabeculectomy in Group 1 (n=21), or intrasclerally under the superficial scleral flap in Group II (n=20) Results: After a follow-up of one year, the intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from a mean basal IOP of 33.0 8.4 mm Hg to 12.56 2.54 mm Hg in Group I and from 30.9 6.6 mm Hg to 11.6 2.21 mm Hg in Group II. The IOP was 6 - 21 mmHg, without medication, in 90.5 % of the eyes in Group I and 75 % of the eyes Group II. Ocular hypotony, hypotony maculopathy, choroidal detachment and a shallow anterior chamber were more frequent with the intrascleral application of MMC during trabeculectomy, but the difference was not statistically significant. The overall success of the surgery at one year, i.e., achieving an IOP of 6 - 21 mmHg and a stable vision, (reduction in visual acuity of ≤2 lines), was 90.5% in Group I and 75 % in Group II. Conclusion: No significant difference was seen in overall success or complication between subconjunctival and intrascleral application of MMC-augmented trabeculectomies in glaucomatous eyes at high risk of surgical failure.
  3,338 24 2
Glaucoma therapy: "Above all do no harm"
G Chandra Sekhar
April-June 2001, 49(2):79-80
  3,088 0 -
Will the cytokine be the future therapy of uveitis?
Jyotirmay Biswas
April-June 2001, 49(2):77-78
  2,787 1 -
Book review
M Baskaran
April-June 2001, 49(2):143-144
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In reply
Lalit Verma, Taraprasad Das
April-June 2001, 49(2):141-141
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New approaches in the management of choroidal neovascular membrane in age-related macular degeneration (CNVM)
Manish Nagpal
April-June 2001, 49(2):141-141
  2,169 1 -