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   2002| January-March  | Volume 50 | Issue 1  
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Timolol maleate 0.5% versus timolol maleate in gel forming solution 0.5% (timolol GFS) in open angle glaucoma in India. Preliminary safety and efficacy study
H Kumar, R Sudan, Harinder S Sethi, P Sony
January-March 2002, 50(1):21-23
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of Timolol maleate 0.5% versus Timolol gel forming solution (GFS) 0.5% in open angle glaucoma in Indian eyes.Methods: In a prospective crossover study 52 patients of open angle glaucoma, well controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) on 0.5% timolol maleate solution were switched over to timolol GFS once a day, after a washout period of one month. A diurnal IOP measurement was done after 6 weeks and compared with patients on timolol maleate 0.5% twice a day. In addition, side effects reported or observed were compared.Results: Statistically significant difference was not observed in ocular hypotensive effect of the two treatments .The side-effects in both the treatment groups were similar except for higher incidence of blurring of vision in patients on timolol GFS.The compliance was better with timolol GFS, but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the more convenient 0.5% timolol in gel forming solution can be offered as an equally efficacious and well-tolerated alternative to twice daily 0.5% timolol solution in open angle glaucoma.
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Genes and diabetic retinopathy.
V Radha, M Rema, V Mohan
January-March 2002, 50(1):5-11
Several recent studies have provided evidence that good diabetes control is important to prevent diabetic retinopathy. However, some groups of patients develop diabetic retinopathy despite good control and others escape retinopathy despite poor control. This suggests the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to retinopathy. This article reviews the role of genetic factors in determining diabetic retinopathy.
  7,858 64 7
Training primary care physicians in community eye health. Experiences from India.
Sanjeev K Gupta, Gudlavalleti V Murthy, Vijay K Dada, L Sanga, N John
January-March 2002, 50(1):63-68
This paper describes the impact of training on primary-care physicians in community eye health through a series of workshops. 865 trainees completed three evaluation formats anonymously. The questions tested knowledge on magnitude of blindness, the most common causes of blindness, and district level functioning of the National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB). Knowledge of the trainers significantly improved immediately after the course (chi 2 300.16; p < 0.00001). This was independent of the timing of workshops and number of trainees per batch. Presentation, content and relevance to job responsibilities were most appreciated. There is immense value addition from training primary-care physicians in community eye health. Despite a long series of training sessions, trainer fatigue was minimal; therefore, such capsules can be replicated with great success.
  7,067 5 2
A ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm presenting as subhyaloid haemorrhage
Ashish R Vaidya, Nikunj J Shah
January-March 2002, 50(1):56-58
We report a case of ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm with overlying subhyaloid haemorrhage. Both subhyaloid haemorrhage and subsequently the macroaneurysm was treated with argon laser photocoagulation
  7,006 8 1
Oncocytoma of the caruncle
E Ravindra Mohan, J Biswas, S Krishnakumar
January-March 2002, 50(1):60-61
A rare case of oncocytoma of the caruncle in a 75-year-old female is reported. Clinical differential diagnosis and histopathologic features are discussed
  6,953 0 5
Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.
Anil K Mandal, H Bagga
January-March 2002, 50(1):54-56
Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.
  5,795 0 -
Safety and efficacy of simultaneous bilateral primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy for developmental glaucoma
Anil K Mandal, Prashant G Bhatia, Vijaya K Gothwal, Vijay M Reddy, P Sriramulu, MS Prasad, Rajesh K John, R Nutheti, BR Shamanna
January-March 2002, 50(1):13-19
Purpose: To establish the safety and efficacy of simultaneous bilateral primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy for developmental glaucoma. Methods: We studied 109 consecutive patients who underwent planned simultaneous bilateral primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy for developmental glaucoma by a single surgeon from January 1990 through December 1999. The main outcome measures were postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal clarity and diameter, visual acuity, bleb characteristics, time of surgical failure and complications. Postoperative complications including endophthalmitis and anaesthetic morbidity and mortality were also analysed. Results: The series consisted of 218 primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy surgeries during 109 anaesthesias. The mean follow-up period was 16.33 16.22 months. The IOP reduced from 26.4 5.9 mmHg to 13.5 4.5 mmHg, with a mean percentage reduction of 46.2 23.7 (P < 0.0001). The success (IOP < 16 mmHg) probabilities were 90.9%, 88.0% and 69.3% at first, second and third year respectively (Kaplan-Meier analysis). The success probability of 69.3% obtained at third year was maintained till 6 years of follow-up. One hundred and sixty six (76.1%) eyes had significant corneal oedema. Postoperatively, the cornea cleared in 93 (57.8 %) eyes. Clinically, well functioning blebs were present in 114 of 171 eyes (66.6%). Postoperatively, 18 (8.3%) eyes developed shallow anterior chamber and 6 (33.3%) of them required surgical reformation. There was no incidence of endophthalmitis or any other sight-threatening complication. Of the anesthetic complications, apnea occurred in 17 (15.6%) patients and all were successfully resuscitated. The most serious post-anaesthetic complication was cardio-pulmonary arrest that occurred 5 hours postoperatively following aspiration during feeding in one child; this child could not be resuscitated. Two children had delayed recovery (2 and 4 hours respectively). The child who had delayed recovery by 2 hours survived and has completed 3 years of follow-up while the other child expired 48 hours later. Conclusion: Simultaneous bilateral primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy is safe and effective for developmental glaucoma. It obviates the need for long second anaesthesia with its attendant risks. It offers several other benefits to the patients and families
  5,185 1 9
Combined extracapsular cataract extraction with ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in phacomorphic glaucoma
Jaya Chandra Das, Z Chaudhuri, S Bhomaj, P Sharma, R Gupta, D Chauhan
January-March 2002, 50(1):25-28
Purpose: To report a retrospective analysis of a combined procedure of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with heparin surface modified (HSM) posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation along with primary Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in an attempt to optimize visual acuity gains and intraocular pressure (IOP) control in patients with phacomorphic glaucoma. Methods: ECCE with HSM PC IOL and AGV implantation was performed through two separate incisions in 15 patients diagnosed with phacomorphic glaucoma. Postoperative improvement in visual acuity and IOP control were monitored. Results: A steady control of IOP was maintained in all patients with minimum anti-glaucoma medications. The average visual acuity was approximately 6/24 at 3 months. Conclusion: Superior preoperative IOP control and a shorter phacomorphic attack resulted in better postoperative vision. The successful maintenance of IOP within the desired range in this study suggests that the procedure should be performed under similar conditions.
  4,980 0 6
Development of an immunoanalytical method for the detection of β- and γ- Crystallins and anti-crystallin antibodies. A molecular biomarker for cataract
S Nayak, RB Sashidhar, K Seetharam Bhat
January-March 2002, 50(1):41-48
Purpose: To develop and evaluate an immunoanalytical method for the detection of β - and g-crystallins and anti-crystallin antibodies. Materials and Methods: Beta and g-crystallins isolated from rat lens were used as immunogens to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Antibody capture assay and western blot analysis showed that the antibodies to β - and g-crystallins were specific. An indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed to quantitate β - and g-crystallin showed an IC50 value of 70 ng and 65 ng, respectively, based on regression analysis. Spiking studies with purified β -crystallin antibodies showed that 33 ng of the purified antibody gave an absorbance of 1.1 at 450 nm, indicating the sensitivity of the method. Results: Antibodies to β - and g-crystallins were not detected in serum samples of the cataractous CFY/NIN rats (used as an animal model for induction of experimental cataract by feeding high galactose diet). However, the cataractous rat serum samples effectively displaced β - and g-crystallin antibodies, indicating that these crystallins leak during cataract formation. The concentration of β - and g-crystallins in the rat serum, as analysed by indirect competitive ELISA, was found to be in the range of 17.6 - 81.6 mg/l and 12.4- 19.6 g/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The methodology developed in the present study may find application as a biochemical tool in molecular epidemiology of cataract
  4,766 1 4
Further investigations on the association of mycobacterium tuberculosis with Eales' disease
Hajib N Madhavan, Kulandai L Therese, K Doraiswamy
January-March 2002, 50(1):35-39
PURPOSE: To apply polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on vitreous fluid (VF) from Eales' disease to further confirm its association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: Sixty nine VF samples from 69 patients (24 Eales' disease and 45 Non-Eales' as controls) were processed by conventional methods for detection of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for IS 6110 and nested PCR (nPCR) using primers coding for MPB 64 gene were applied on all 69 VF. PCR based dot-blot hybridisation was applied on the IS 6110 amplified products of n PCR-positive VFs. RESULTS: Conventional methods (direct smear and culture) did not detect mycobacteria in any of the 69 VF samples. Five (20.8%) of 24 VF from Eales' and 2 (4.2%) of 45 VF from control patients tested positive for M. tuberculosis DNA by nPCR. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). All 69 VF were negative by PCR for IS 6110. Two VF of Eales' patients positive by nPCR were also positive by DNA probe dot-blot hybridisation for IS 6110. CONCLUSION: Detection of M. tuberculosis DNA by PCR in a significant number of VF of Eales' disease patients reemphasizes the association of this bacterium with Eales' disease.
  4,650 0 8
Bilateral anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in Takayasu arteritis
Kishan Pal Malik, K Kapoor, A Mehta, S Dadeya, Braham P Guliani, S Aggarwal, Vishnu S Gupta
January-March 2002, 50(1):52-54
This report describes a case of a young male with bilateral, asymmetrical AION. He was subsequently diagnosed with Takayasu's disease
  4,611 2 9
Effect of combination antiretroviral therapy on cytomegalovirus retinitis
Alay S Banker, A Patel
January-March 2002, 50(1):29-33
Purpose: To study the various changes in the course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis following combination antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Combination antiretroviral treatment was given to 12 patients with active CMV retinitis following which all anti-CMV medications were discontinued once the CD4 cell counts were >100/mm3 for 3 months. Results: The median CD4 cell count increased from 36.5/mm3 (range, 3-74/mm3) at baseline to 175.5/mm3 (range, 97-410/mm3) at 3 months. No patient had reactivation of CMV retinitis or developed extraocular CMV infection during median follow-up of 16.7 months. In one patient with peripheral active CMV retinitis, the retinitis resolved completely and remained so throughout the follow-up period without specific anti-CMV treatment. Five (41.7%) patients had immune recovery vitritis. Conclusion: Patients receiving combination antiretroviral treatment following treatment for CMV retinitis have better control of CMV retinitis but immune recovery vitritis is a common sequelae. Reactivation of CMV retinitis is common in patients who discontinue combination antiretroviral treatment
  3,943 1 3
Silicone sleeve of extrusion cannula as an intraocular foreign body
S Agrawal, Satish C Gupta, J Agrawal, Trilok P Agrawal
January-March 2002, 50(1):58-59
An unusual intraocular foreign body - the silicone sleeve of a soft-tipped extrusion cannula left behind accidentally in the vitreous cavity following a vitreoretinal surgical procedure for complex retinal detachment - is reported. The silicone sleeve remained within the eye for a year without causing any problem
  3,683 0 -
Bipseudophakia. Clinicopathological findings of a pseudophakic human globe obtained postmortem implanted with an anterior chamber and a posterior chamber intraocular lens
Andrea M Izak, Suresh K Pandey, L Werner, David J Apple, Rupal H Trivedi
January-March 2002, 50(1):49-51
We report the clinicopathological findings of a human pseudophakic globe obtained postmortem, containing both anterior and posterior chamber intraocular lens, a condition we termed "bipseudophakia"
  3,330 0 -
Efficacy of topical and systemic itraconazole as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent in mycotic corneal ulcer. A preliminary study.
A Ray
January-March 2002, 50(1):70-70
  2,593 0 -
Of genes and disease
C Kannabiran, Shirly George Panicker
January-March 2002, 50(1):2-3
  2,571 3 1
Sriniva K Rao, R Fogla, P Padmanabhan
January-March 2002, 50(1):70-71
  2,377 0 -
CM Kalavathy, Philip A Thomas
January-March 2002, 50(1):71-72
  2,338 0 -
In reply
SS Dhage
January-March 2002, 50(1):69-70
  1,731 0 -