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   2004| January-March  | Volume 52 | Issue 1  
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Limbal stem cell transplantation
M Fernandes, Virender S Sangwan, Srinivas K Rao, S Basti, Mittanamalli S Sridhar, Aashish K Bansal, Harminder S Dua
January-March 2004, 52(1):5-22
The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This also includes management of the underlying systemic disease, ocular adnexal pathology and dry eye. Conjunctival limbal autografts from the healthy contralateral eye are performed for unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, tissue may be harvested from a cadaver or a living related donor; prolonged immunosuppression is needed to avoid allograft rejection in such cases. This review describes the surgical techniques, postoperative treatment regimes (including immunosuppression for allografts), the complications and their management. The short and long-term outcomes of the various modalities reported in the literature are also described.
  17,145 1,969 14
Awareness of eye donation in the rural population of India
S Krishnaiah, V Kovai, R Nutheti, Bindiganavale R Shamanna, R Thomas, Gullapalli N Rao
January-March 2004, 52(1):73-78
Purpose: To determine the "awareness of eye donation" and "willingness to pledge eyes for donation" in the rural population of Andhra Pradesh, southern India. Methods: A total of 7,775 subjects of all ages, representative of the rural population of Andhra Pradesh, participated in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS). Subjects older than 15 years were interviewed regarding awareness of eye donation and willingness to pledge eyes for donation. Results: Age-gender adjusted prevalence of awareness of eye donation in this population was 30.7% (95% CI: 29.5 - 31.9) but only 0.1% (age-gender adjusted prevalence) (95% CI: 0.05 - 0.25) had pledged eyes. On multivariate analysis the awareness of eye donation was significantly less in those subjects 70 years old (OR 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8), illiterates (OR 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2), females (OR 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7-0.9), lower socioeconomic status group (OR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.4-0.5) and Christians (OR 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.6). Media comprised the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation, 32.9% were willing to pledge eyes, and 50.6% needed more information to decide whether or not to pledge their eyes. Conclusions: There needs to be more transfer of knowledge if more eyes are to be pledged. One-third of those aware of eye donation have not pledged their eyes, and an additional 50.6% needed more information to decide. This means only about one-fifth of those aware of eye donations have pledged their eyes.
  14,342 888 6
Bilateral senile scleral plaques mimicking post-inflammatory scleral ectasia
Somasheila I Murthy, Virender S Sangwan
January-March 2004, 52(1):59-60
Scleral plaque is a commonly occurring change in older individuals. We report a case of bilateral scleral plaques seen in an elderly female patient. This current case report describes a common but often missed benign scleral change in the elderly individual.
  9,344 249 -
Paediatric open globe injuries. Visual outcome and risk factors for endophthalmitis
S Narang, V Gupta, P Simalandhi, A Gupta, S Raj, Mangat R Dogra
January-March 2004, 52(1):29-34
Purpose: To study the incidence of open globe injuries and the outcome in children, and to study the risk factors for post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Methods: Paediatric patient population. Retrospective analysis of 72 consecutive cases of open globe injury over 3 years (January 1998 to December 2000). Results: The cause of trauma was sports related (n = 18), home-made bow and arrow (n = 16), household kitchen injuries (n = 10), cracker injuries (n = 7) and other miscellaneous outdoor activities (n = 16). In 5 children the cause could not be ascertained. Visual acuity of > 3/60 in the injured eye at the last follow-up examination was recorded in 37 of 70 patients (52.86%) whose visual acuity could be tested. The final visual acuity was significantly poorer in eyes where primary repair was delayed beyond 24 hours of injury (P<0.05). Post- traumatic endophthalmitis developed in 39 of 72 (54.16%) eyes. Bow and arrow and household injuries (P < 0.5) and eyes in which primary repair was delayed beyond 24 hours of injury (P<0.01) had a higher risk of endophthalmitis in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis delayed repair was the only significant risk factor for the occurrence of endophthalmitis (P=0.014). Conclusion: Delayed repair, bow and arrow injuries and household injuries were associated with significantly higher risk of endophthalmitis. The incidence of endophthalmitis can be reduced by early referral of trauma cases and parental supervision.
  8,356 944 9
Self retaining contact lens system for vitreous surgery
Kakarla V Chalam, Vinay A Shah
January-March 2004, 52(1):67-71
We describe the principle and design of a new self-retaining contact lens system for vitreous surgery. The system has three lenses: the plano-concave, prism and magnifying lens. This system is based on the principle of a direct imaging contact lens, designed for a 150-200mm focal length operating microscope. The contact lenses are designed to have an inferior concave surface [radius of curvature (ROC) 7.7mm], modified by the addition of four footplates to provide stability and centration during vitreous surgery. The lenses are used with a drop of viscoelastic material placed between the concave surface of the contact lens and cornea. This induces negative suction and helps retain the lens in position during surgery. These specially designed lenses provide a stable, well-centered, high-resolution, magnified view of the fundus. This system eliminates the need for a skilled assistant or for suturing the lens to the sclera during vitreous surgery.
  7,478 391 1
Clinical and histopathological characteristics of uveal melanoma in asian indians. A study of 103 patients
J Biswas, S Kabra, S Krishnakumar, Mahesh P Shanmugam
January-March 2004, 52(1):41-44
Purpose: To study the clinical and histopathological characteristics of uveal melanomas in Asian Indians and compare them with other ethnic groups. Materials and Methods: One hundred and three enucleated eyes with clinical diagnosis of uveal melanoma were retrospectively studied (1987-2001) and the clinical and pathological features analysed. Results: Uveal melanomas constituted 0.02% of outpatients in a referral eye hospital in India over a 12-year period. The patients were predominantly males. Uveal melanomas tended to occur in the younger age. The mean age was 45.714.2 years. Melanoma involved the choroid in 90 (87.37%) patients, and both choroid and ciliary body in 13 (12.62%) patients. Mean basal diameter of the tumour was 13.435.32 mm. Mixed cell type was more common. Conclusion: Uveal melanomas are rare in the Asian Indians compared to those in the West. They occur in younger persons, have a greater mean basal diameter than that of Caucasians and are predominantly of the mixed cell type.
  6,964 440 6
First contact management of post-operative endophthalmitis. A retro-spective analysis
L Verma, R Patil, D Talwar, Hem K Tewari, K Ravi
January-March 2004, 52(1):65-66
Records of 37 consecutive patients of postoperative endophthalmitis referred to our centre from North India were retrospectively analysed to study the first contact management profile. Ten (27%) patients had received intravitreal antibiotics as a primary mode of treatment, and 27 (73%) had received only parenteral antibiotics. The outcome was worse in the latter group. This suggests that general ophthalmologists lack the capability to provide adequate treatment to patients with endopthalmitis in Northern India.
  6,653 311 1
Intravitreal live gnathostoma spinigerum
Samar K Basak, Tushar K Sinha, D Bhattacharya, Tushar K Hazra, S Parikh
January-March 2004, 52(1):57-58
Intraocular infestation by live Gnathostoma spinigerum is a rare occurrence in humans. Most of the published reports are from South-East Asia. We report a case of intravitreal gnathostomiasis, where the worm was removed live and intact by pars plana vitrectomy.
  6,032 381 8
A comparative study of small Incision trabeculectomy avoiding tenon's capsule vis--vis trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C
J Das, P Sharma, Z Chaudhuri
January-March 2004, 52(1):23-28
Purpose: To compare the results of small incision trabeculectomy avoiding Tenon's capsule (SIT) vis--vis intraoperative use of Mitomycin-C (MMC) in primary chronic angle closure glaucoma. Methods: A controlled prospective study was conducted on 60 consecutive primary chronic angle closure glaucoma patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery. Patients were divided into two groups, Group I (n=30): those undergoing SIT and Group II (n=30): those undergoing trabeculectomy with MMC. Patients were followed up serially for 24 months and their intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. Success was defined as IOP 22 mm Hg with no additional anti-glaucoma medication or laser/surgical intervention. Success was also defined as a 30% reduction from the initial IOP at which optic disc cupping and/or visual field changes occurred. Results: The final mean IOP with SIT was 16.804.20 mm Hg as against 17.843.80 mm Hg with trabeculectomy with MMC. Final success rate of 93.3% was obtained with SIT versus 90% with trabeculectomy with MMC. No major complications were seen with either procedure. Conclusion: Small incision trabeculectomy safely and effectively reduces the IOP in over 90% cases. The advantages of this procedure over trabeculectomy with MMC are its low cost, use of a small (2.5 mm) limbal incision which obviates the dissection of Tenon's capsule and absence of any major complication.
  4,639 328 2
Seroprevalence of human immuno-deficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among eye donors
B Mahalakshmi, Hajib N Madhavan, R Pushpalatha, S Margarita
January-March 2004, 52(1):61-62
Blood specimens collected at the time of enucleation of the eyes from 483 consecutive eye donors were tested for sero-markers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Antibodies to HIV1 were detected in 3 (0.62%), HBsAg in 17 (3.52%) and antibodies to HCV in 7 (1.45%).
  4,587 333 1
Elevated free tear lactoferrin levels in leprosy are associated with type 2 reactions
E Daniel, M Duriasamy, Gigi J Ebenezer, Shobhana, Charles K Job
January-March 2004, 52(1):51-56
Purpose: To determine the association of demographics, leprosy and ocular characteristics with altered levels of lactoferrin in the tears of normal subjects and leprosy patients, and to detect the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin in these tear samples. Method: We collected light-stimulated tears from 298 leprosy patients and an equal number of normal subjects using the glass capillary method. Free lactoferrin levels were estimated using ELISA and the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin was detected using the immuno-blotting method. Significant associations were looked for between tear lactoferrin levels and demographic characteristics, leprosy characteristics such as type of disease, duration of disease, reactions, deformity and bacterial load, and ocular complications, using chi-square and regression analysis. Results: Tear lactoferrin levels with a mean (SD) of 2.55 (2.83)mg/ml in the control group were significantly different (P<0.000) from leprosy patients with a smean (SD) of 5.66 (7.21)mg/ml. Age showed an inverse correlation with tear lactoferrin levels in controls. Increased bacterial load, grade 2 leg deformity and Type 2 reactions were significantly associated (P<0.05) with increased tear lactoferrin levels. Type 2 reactions remained significantly associated ( P=0.01) on multiple regression analysis. Tear lactoferrin levels were not associated with gender, serum lactoferrin levels, Type 1 reactions, face patches, treatment status, orbicularis oculi weakness, lagophthalmos, ectropion, entropion, corneal opacity, cataract and iridocyclitis. Conclusion: Age is inversely related to tear lactoferrin levels in normal subjects. Free lactoferrin levels in tears are significantly higher in leprosy patients compared with normal controls. Type 2 reactions in leprosy are significantly associated with elevated tear lactoferrin levels.
  4,633 282 2
Suture and surgically induced astigmatism after cataract surgery
Praveen Krishna Ratnagiri
January-March 2004, 52(1):87-87
  4,528 347 -
Essential parameters for accurate intraocular lens (IOL) power estimation in post refractive surgery cataract patients.
R Fogla, Srinivas K Rao, P Padmanabhan
January-March 2004, 52(1):81-81
  3,910 304 -
Transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal neovascular membrane in age related macular degeneration
M Agarwal, Mahesh P Shanmugam, L Gopal, N Shetty, M Bhende, L Gopal, T Sharma, S Thakur, R Raman, SH Nizamuddin, KR Moorthy
January-March 2004, 52(1):45-49
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in choroidal neovasularisation (CNVM) secondary to age related macular degeneration ( AMD). Material and methods: Retrospective, non-randomized study of 28 eyes of 28 patients with subfoveal CNVM (classic, occult or mixed) secondary to AMD. Results: Fifteen patients (53.57%) maintained their pre-treatment vision, 2 (7.14%) patients showed improvement of more than 2 lines and 11(39.28%) patients showed deterioration of vision by >2 lines. Angiographic and clinical regression of CNVM was noted in 19 patients (67.8%) on an average follow up of 15.32 3.31 months. Conclusion: TTT leads to stabilisation of vision in 60% of treated eyes with CNVM due to AMD.
  3,925 244 3
Sparfloxacin corneal deposits
Nikhil S Gokhale
January-March 2004, 52(1):79-79
  3,703 239 6
Transpupillary thermotherapy in subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to age-related macular degeneration
L Verma, Hem K Tewari, S Nainiwal, J Ravindranathan
January-March 2004, 52(1):35-40
Purpose: To report our initial experience in the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane, secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) secondary to AMD, were included in the study. The parameters assessed before the TTT were visual acuity by ETDRS chart, scotoma score by Amsler grid chart, reading speed, fundus examination by direct and indirect ophthalmoscope as well as +90 Diopter lens followed by digital fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA). Results: The letter visual acuity improved or stabilized in 72% cases up to 12 weeks after TTT. Mean scotoma score decreased from a mean of 47.56, to 43.56 at 6 weeks and to 37 at 12 weeks. Mean reading speed increased from 27.04 words/minute at pretreatment to 34.52 words/minute at 6 weeks and 37.33 words/minute 12 weeks after TTT. Conclusion: TTT is not only a cheaper alternative to photodynamic therapy (PDT), but also is an efficacious tool in stabilisation or improvement of visual acuity in the management of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane due to AMD.
  3,660 227 4
Debris in phacoemulsification handsets. A potential cause of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery?
Srinivas K Rao, M Baskaran, PJ Kumar, L Vijaya, Hajib N Madhavan
January-March 2004, 52(1):80-81
  3,622 237 3
An unusual intraorbital foreign body.
V Singh, A Kaur, S Agrawal
January-March 2004, 52(1):64-65
A plastic foreign body penetrating the anterior base of skull through the orbit in a 10-year-old male child is reported.
  3,547 258 4
Locally aggressive orbital fibrous histiocytoma
Mandeep S Bajaj, A Sethi, S Kashyap, Thanikachalam, N Pushker
January-March 2004, 52(1):62-64
We report a rare presentation of a massive, locally aggressive, fibrous histiocytoma of the orbit. The importance of histopathological grading and appropriate management are highlighted.
  3,289 217 -
Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. A retrospective analysis and treatment option
SM Betharia, Vijay B Wagh, H Pathak, V Sharma
January-March 2004, 52(1):82-82
  3,192 301 1
Digital ophthalmic photography
V Vedantham
January-March 2004, 52(1):83-84
  2,567 216 2
Transpupillary thermo therapy for the treatment of choroidal neovascula-risation secondary to age related macular degeneration in Indian eyes.
L Verma, A Sinha, S Nainiwal, Hem K Tewari
January-March 2004, 52(1):86-87
  2,595 150 -
R Venkatesh
January-March 2004, 52(1):84-85
  2,538 188 1