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   2004| April-June  | Volume 52 | Issue 2  
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Posterior Capsule Opacification : A Review of the Aetiopathogenesis, Experimental and Clinical Studies and Factors for Prevention
Suresh K Pandey, David J Apple, L Werner, Anthony J Maloof, E John Milverton
April-June 2004, 52(2):99-112
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO, secondary cataract, after cataract) is a nagging postsurgical complication following extracapsular cataract surgery (ECCE) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. PCO should be eliminated since it has deleterious sequelae and Neodynium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd: YAG) laser treatment often is an unnecessary financial burden on the health care system. PCO following cataract surgery could be a major problem, since patient follow-up is difficult and the Nd:YAG laser is not always available. Advances in surgical techniques, IOL designs/biomaterials have been instrumental in bringing about a gradual and unnoticed decrease in the incidence of PCO. We strongly believe that the overall incidence of PCO and hence the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is now rapidly decreasing - from 50% in the 1980s and early 1990s to less than 10% currently. Superior tools, surgical procedures, skills and appropriate IOL designs have all helped to significantly reduce this complication. In this article, we review the aetio pathogenesis, experimental and clinical studies and propose surgical and implant-related factors for PCO prevention. Careful application and utilisation of these factors by surgeons could lead to a significant reduction is secondary cataract, the second most common cause of visual loss worldwide
  37,383 4,973 34
Pattern of Uveitis in a Referral Eye Clinic in North India
R Singh, V Gupta, A Gupta
April-June 2004, 52(2):121-5
Purpose: To report the pattern of uveitis in a north Indian tertiary eye center. Methods: A retrospective study was done to identify the pattern of uveitis in a uveitis clinic population of a major referral center in north India from January 1996 to June 2001. A standard clinical protocol, the "naming and meshing" approach with tailored laboratory investigations, was used for the final diagnosis. Results: 1233 patients were included in the study; 641 (51.98%) were males and 592 (48.01%) females ranging in age from 1.5 to 75 years. The anterior uveitis was seen in 607 patients (49.23%) followed by posterior uveitis (247 patients, 20.23%), intermediate uveitis (198 patients, 16.06%) and panuveitis (181 patients, 14.68%). A specific diagnosis could be established in 602 patients (48.82%). The infective aetiology was seen in 179 patients, of which tuberculosis was the commonest cause in 125 patients followed by toxoplasmosis (21 patients, 11.7%). Non-infectious aetiology was seen in 423 patients, of which ankylosing spondylitis was the commonest cause in 80 patients followed by sepigionous choroidopathy (62 patients, 14.65%) . Conclusion: Tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis were the commonest form of infective uveitis, while ankylosing spondylitis and serpiginous choroidopathy were commonly seen as the non-infective causes of uveitis in North India.
  8,210 1,962 29
Determination of Carbonyl Group Content in Plasma Proteins as a Useful Marker to Assess Impairment in Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Eales' Disease
M Rajesh, Konerirajapuram N Sulochana, K Coral, R Punitham, J Biswas, K Babu, S Ramakrishnan
April-June 2004, 52(2):139-44
Purpose: Formation of protein carbonyl groups is considered an early biomarker for the oxidant/antioxidant barrier impairment in various inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the intensity of free radical reactions in patients with Eales' disease, an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the retina. Methods: Twenty patients with Eales' disease in active vasculitis stage, 15 patients with Eales' disease in healed vasculitis stage and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited for the study. Plasma protein carbonyl groups,plasma glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined in erythrocytes. Results: Plasma protein carbonyl content was elevated by a factor of 3.5 and 1.8 respectively in active and healed vasculitis stages. The increase of carbonyl group content in active and healed stage of patients with Eales' disease correlated with diminished SOD activity and GSH content. There was also increased accumulation of TBARS in active and healed vasculitis stages of Eales' disease, and this correlated with diminished SOD activity. Conclusion: Our results showed that protein carbonyl group content increases with severity of Eales' disease. The increase in carbonyl content correlated with diminished antioxidant status. This confirms an earlier report that free radical mediated tissue damage occurs in Eales' disease. The determination of protein carbonyl content may be used as a simple biomarker to monitor the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in controlling retinal vasculitis in patients with Eales' disease.
  9,349 771 7
Perceptions of Eye Diseases and Eye Care Needs of Children among Parents in Rural South India: The Kariapatti Pediatric Eye Evaluation Project (KEEP)
Praveen K Nirmalan, S Sheeladevi, V Tamilselvi, Arockia C Victor, P Vijayalakshmi, L Rahmathullah
April-June 2004, 52(2):163-7
We conducted 24 focus group discussions for parents and grandparents as part of a population-based survey of ocular morbidity to determine awareness and perceptions of eye diseases in children among parents and guardians of children in a rural south Indian population. Focus group discussions were conducted separately for mothers, fathers and grandparents. They were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed to the local language and English. Content analysis of the focus group discussions was done to identify key concepts, and this yielded five broad areas of interest relating to awareness and attitudes towards: 1) eye problems in children, 2) specific eye diseases in children, 3) vision problems in children, 4) existing health practices, and 5) utilization of services. Vision impairment did not figure in the top ten eye problems cited for children. There was a predominant belief that children below 4 years should not wear spectacles. Strabismus was considered as untreatable and was seen as a sign of good luck. Differing advice provided by the medical community for the same condition was an issue. The discussions also brought out that eye doctors were approached last for eye care, after traditional healers and general physicians. The discussions raise several issues of relevance that eye care programs need to address for better community involvement with programs. This will require a far greater focus than the current curative focus adopted by most programs.
  8,688 528 2
Major ocular complications after organ transplantation.
P Lanzetta, P Monaco
April-June 2004, 52(2):95-7
  7,704 359 1
Low Endothelial Cell Count and Clear Corneal Grafts
Samar K Basak
April-June 2004, 52(2):151-3
Specular microscopic study on clear corneal grafts indicates that at times surprisingly low endothelial cell density can maintain the grafted cornea in a relatively dehydrated state. The critical limit of the endothelial cell count for corneal decompensation is thought to be 700 cells/mm2. This communication reports 13 cases of clear corneal graft with endothelial cell count below 700 cells/mm2.
  7,506 251 3
Late Recurrent Uveitis after Phacoemulsification
Pradeep K Saraf
April-June 2004, 52(2):158-9
It is now assumed that recurrent late onset uveitis after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) is due to indolent infection. Fifteen such cases were observed after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with-in-the-bag IOL implant. These cases were considered noninfective and treated medically with good visual recovery.
  7,437 315 1
Corneal Endothelial Safety of Intracameral Preservative-free 1% Xylocaine
Alpesh R Shah, Rasesh P Diwan, Abhay R Vasavada, Manzoor Qadir Keng
April-June 2004, 52(2):133-8
Purpose : To evaluate the effect of intracameral preservative-free 1% xylocaine on the corneal endothelium as an adjuvant to topical anaesthesia during phacoemulsification and Acrysof foldable IOL implantation. Material & Methods: This is a prospective, controlled, randomised, double-masked study. 106 patients with soft to moderately dense (Grade 1-3) senile cataract and corneal endothelial cell density of >1500/mm2 were randomised to the xylocaine group (n=53) and control group(n=53). Central endothelial specular microscopy and ultrasound corneal pachymetry were performed preoperatively. On the first postoperative day the eyes were evaluated for corneal oedema and Descemet's folds. Ultrasound corneal pachymetry was performed at 1, 3 and 12 months. Specular microscopy was performed at 3 and 12 months. Cell loss was expressed as a percentage of preoperative cell density. Six patients could not complete one year follow-up. Chi-square and paired t test (2 tail) statistical tests were applied for analysis. Results: Four (7.54%) patients in the xylocaine group and 5 (9.43%) in the control group had a few Descemet's folds associated with mild central stromal oedema. Corneal thickness increased from 549.3 37.2 to 555.5 36.5 in the xylocaine group and from 553.1 36.2 to 559.3 40.5 in the control group at the one-month postoperative visit. Thickness returned to the preoperative level in xylocaine group 549.6 34.5 and control group 554.7 41.1 at three months. (P=0.484) The percentage of cell loss was 4.47 2.53% in the xylocaine group and 4.49 3.09 % in the control group at one year. (P=0.97) Conclusion: Intracameral preservative-free 1% xylocaine does not appear to affect corneal endothelium adversely during phacoemulsification.
  6,395 363 6
Trace Elements Iron, Copper and Zinc in Vitreous of Patients with Various Vitreoretinal Diseases
N Sulochana Konerirajapuram, K Coral, R Punitham, T Sharma, N Kasinathan, R Sivaramakrishnan
April-June 2004, 52(2):145-8
Purpose: To measure the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in human vitreous and to interpret their levels with various vitreoretinal diseases like proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign body, Eales' disease and macular hole. Methods: Undiluted vitreous fluid collected during pars plana vitrectomy was used to measure trace elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The level of vitreous iron increased threefold in Eales' disease (1.85 0.36 pg/ml), 2.5-fold in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1.534 0.17 pg/ml) and 2.3-fold in eyes with intraocular foreign body (1.341 0.25 pg/ml) when compared with macular hole (0.588 0.16 pg/ml). This was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Zinc was found to be low in Eales' disease (0.57 0.22 pg/ml) when compared with other groups, though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The increased level of iron with decreased zinc content in Eales' disease confirms the earlier reported oxidative stress mechanism for the disease. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy and intraocular foreign body the level of iron increases. This is undesirable as iron can augment glycoxidation, which can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, in turn causing vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment and ultimately retinal detachment and vision loss
  5,709 369 3
Optic Disc Imaging by Heidelberg Retinal Tomogram in Congenital Optic Disc Anomaly
V Kunjam, G Chandra Sekhar
April-June 2004, 52(2):149-51
We evaluated two cases of congenital optic disc anomaly with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) that could be mistaken for glaucomatous optic disc. One was an optic disc coloboma with a visual field defect and the other had an optic disc pit without a visual field defect. HRT was abnormal only in the eye with optic disc pit with normal fields. While HRT can be a valuable adjunct to disc evaluation and follow-up, it cannot be used in isolation in the differentiation of abnormal from normal optic discs.
  5,782 228 2
The Sweep-VEP: A faster estimation of visual acuity in preverbal children
V Vedantham, Praveen Krishna Ratnagiri
April-June 2004, 52(2):175-175
  5,348 312 -
Seborrheic Keratosis of the Conjunctiva
Arun K Jain, J Sukhija, B Radotra, V Malhotra
April-June 2004, 52(2):154-5
Seborrheic keratosis can simulate a malignant melanoma and should form the differential diagnosis of a malignant melanoma. Histopathology is confirmatory.
  4,944 213 1
Sterile Endophthalmitis in Vitrectomised Eyes due to Suspected Heat Resistant Endotoxins in the Infusion Fluid
B Patnaik, C Biswas, Rajinder Kalsi Patnaik
April-June 2004, 52(2):127-31
Purpose: To report on to the possibility of development of severe postoperative sterile endophthalmitis due to heat-resistant bacterial endotoxins in commercially available infusion fluids Methods: A case study of 4 eyes that had previously undergone vitreoretinal surgery, which developed clinical endophthalmitis within 18 hours of surgery and two eyes that had vitreous surgery with intraocular gas and did not develop clinical endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery on three consecutive operative days Results: The vitreous samples were sterile, both for bacteria and fungi. The only common supply in all cases was a new batch of Ringer's lactate infusion fluid. Though the Ringer's lactate solutions in the same batch were also sterile, the infusion fluids contained abnormally high levels of bacterial endotoxins detected by gel clot method. Conclusion: Commercially available infusion fluid may be sterile, yet contain endotoxins from killed bacteria. This could cause postoperative sterile endophthalmitis.
  4,828 228 3
Ex-vivo Potential of Cadaveric and Fresh Limbal Tissues to Regenerate Cultured Epithelium
Geeta K Vemuganti, S Kashyap, Virender S Sangwan, S Singh
April-June 2004, 52(2):113-20
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the ex-vivo growth potential and formation of cultured corneal epithelium from residual corneo-limbal rings obtained from the operating room after penetrating keratoplasty, and fresh limbal tissues from patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Methods: With the approval of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent from patients, 1-2mm of limbal tissues from 15 patients and 31 tissues from the cadaveric limbal ring preserved in MK medium (16 tissues) and Optisol (15 tissues) were used for the study. Donor data included age, time lapse between death and collection, collection and preservation and preservation and culture. Tiny bits of the limbal tissue were explanted on the de-epithelialised human amniotic membrane prepared following standard guidelines, and cultured using Human Corneal Epithelial cell medium. Radial growth from the explant was observed and measured by phase contrast microscopy over 2-4 weeks. After adequate confluent growth, whole mount preparation of the membrane was made and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Part of the membrane was fixed in formalin and processed for routine histologic examination. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: Forty-six tissues were evaluated from 42 eyes (15 from patients, 31 from cadaveric eyes) with a mean age of 55.3 years 21.23 years (range 18 years - 110 years). The growth pattern observed was similar in all the positive cases with clusters of cells budding from the explant over 24- 72 hours, and subsequent formation of a monolayer over the next 2-3 weeks. The stained whole mount preparation showed a radial growth of cells around explants with diameter ranging from 5 to 16mm. Histologic evaluation of the membrane confirmed the growth of 2-3 cell-layered epithelium over the amniotic membrane. Cultivated epithelium around explant cell cultures was observed in 100% (15/15) of limbal tissue obtained from patients, as against 56% (9/16) of MK medium preserved tissues and 46.7% (7/15) of Optisol preserved tissues. This was statistically significant (P=0.0131) There was no significant statistical difference in the growth properties, i.e, the mean percentage of fragments showing growth (P=0.229) or the mean diameter of growth (P=0.479) in the cultures obtained from fresh and preserved tissues. The time lapse at various stages between death and utilisation and donor age had no significant influence on the growth potential of the limbal tissues. Conclusion: The potential for generating cultured corneal epithelium from fresh limbal tissues obtained from living subjects is higher than that observed with preserved tissues. It would also be worthwhile to address the factors that could further enhance the proliferative potential of the cadaveric tissues obtained from eye banks
  4,444 311 13
Laser range finder can cause retinal injury
K Shaym Sunder, N Shetty, VK Singh, VS Chaudhary, S Sharma
April-June 2004, 52(2):169-70
  4,378 157 2
Fluticasone propionate raises IOP in susceptible individuals
R Sihota, T Dada, Harminder K Rai
April-June 2004, 52(2):170-1
  3,808 166 -
Recurrent Mucinous Carcinoma of the Eyelid
S Krishnakumar, S Rambhatla, N Subramanian, L Mahesh, J Biswas
April-June 2004, 52(2):156-7
A case of recurrent mucinous carcinoma of the lid in a 40-year-old male is reported. Clinical differential diagnosis and histopathologic features are discussed.
  3,517 174 4
Uveal Metastasis from a Bronchial Carcinoid Tumour
J Biswas, K Babu, S Krishnakumar, Mahesh P Shanmugam
April-June 2004, 52(2):160-2
A rare case of bronchial carcinoid tumour metastasis to the ciliary body and the choroid with clinical, diagnostic and histopathological correlation is reported.
  3,002 149 -
Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis
Philip A Thomas, P Geraldine
April-June 2004, 52(2):171-2
  2,644 203 2
Much ado about ciprofloxacin and Acinetobacter
V Vedantham
April-June 2004, 52(2):173-4
  2,263 155 -
Prolapsed intraocular aspergilloma masquerading as malignant melanoma
Philip A Thomas, P Geraldine
April-June 2004, 52(2):172-3
  2,055 134 -