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   2008| July-August  | Volume 56 | Issue 4  
    Online since June 19, 2008

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Post-penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma
Tanuj Dada, Anand Aggarwal, KB Minudath, M Vanathi, Sunil Choudhary, Viney Gupta, Ramanjit Sihota, Anita Panda
July-August 2008, 56(4):269-277
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41410  PMID:18579984
Post-penetrating keratoplasty (post-PK) glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible visual loss and graft failure. The etiology for this disorder is multifactorial, and with the use of new diagnostic equipment, it is now possible to elucidate the exact pathophysiology of this condition. A clear understanding of the various mechanisms that operate during different time frames following PK is essential to chalk out the appropriate management algorithms. The various issues with regard to its management, including the putative risk factors, intraocular pressure (IOP) assessment post-PK, difficulties in monitoring with regard to the visual fields and optic nerve evaluation, are discussed. A step-wise approach to management starting from the medical management to surgery with and without metabolites and the various cycloablative procedures in cases of failed filtering procedures and excessive perilimbal scarring is presented. Finally, the important issue of minimizing the incidence of glaucoma following PK, especially through the use of oversized grafts and iris tightening procedures in the form of concomitant iridoplasty are emphasized. It is important to weigh the risk-benefit ratio of any modality used in the treatment of this condition as procedures aimed at IOP reduction, namely trabeculectomy with antimetabolites, and glaucoma drainage devices can trigger graft rejection, whereas cyclodestructive procedures can not only cause graft failure but also precipitate phthisis bulbi. Watchful expectancy and optimal time of intervention can salvage both graft and vision in this challenging condition.
  12,552 1,348 29
Current profile of secondary glaucomas
Ritu Gadia, Ramanjit Sihota, Tanuj Dada, Viney Gupta
July-August 2008, 56(4):285-289
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41411  PMID:18579986
Purpose: To study the current profile of secondary glaucomas for their incidence and to identify risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective chart review, 2997 patients newly diagnosed and referred with glaucoma to our tertiary glaucoma center in the year 2005 were included. Evaluation of all cases was done on the basis of a detailed history and recorded examination including vision, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior segment examination, gonioscopy and fundus evaluation by glaucoma specialists. Demographic data, etiology of secondary glaucoma, and any other significant findings were noted. Results: Of 2997 referred patients, 2650 had glaucoma or were glaucoma suspects. Of all glaucoma patients or glaucoma suspects, 579 patients (21.84%) had secondary glaucoma. Age distribution was as follows: 25% were between 0-20 years; 27% were between 21-40 years; 30% were between 41-60 years and 18% were >60 years. The male female ratio was 2.2. Frequent causes of secondary glaucoma were post - vitrectomy 14%, trauma 13%, corneo-iridic scar 12%, aphakia 11%, neovascular glaucoma 9%. Post-vitrectomy glaucoma eyes had vitreous substitutes in 83% cases of which 66% eyes had retained silicone oil for more than three months. Vision ≤20/200 was present in 63% eyes, 57% eyes had baseline IOP > 30 mm Hg. Of all traumatic glaucoma patients, 71% cases were <30 years of age. Fifty per cent had baseline IOP of >30 mm Hg and vision ≤20/200. Conclusions: Most patients with secondary glaucoma have poor vision (≤20/200) with high IOP and advanced fundus changes at presentation.
  7,896 962 23
Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India
S Vats, GVS Murthy, M Chandra, SK Gupta, P Vashist, M Gogoi
July-August 2008, 56(4):313-316
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41413  PMID:18579991
Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.
  6,643 789 23
Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty in endothelial dysfunctions: Three-month results in 75 eyes
Samar K Basak
July-August 2008, 56(4):291-296
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41412  PMID:18579987
Purpose: To analyze the results of Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in the first consecutive 75 cases. Materials and Methods: Prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative interventional case series. Seventy-five eyes of 75 patients with endothelial dysfunctions of different etiology, scheduled for DSEK, were included in this study. Healthy donor cornea with a cell count of >2000 cells/sq mm was considered for transplantation in each case. Indications, operative problems and postoperative complications were noted. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive and keratometric astigmatism, central corneal thickness (CCT) and endothelial cell density (ECD) were analyzed for each patient after a minimum follow-up of three months. Results: Main indication was pseudophakic corneal edema and bullous keratopathy in 53 (70.7%) eyes. Seventeen (22.7%) cases had moderate to severe Fuchs' dystrophy with various grades of cataract; and DSEK was combined with manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) in those cases. After three months, BCVA was 20/60 or better in 62 (82.7%) cases. Mean refractive and keratometric astigmatism were 1.10 0.55 diopter cylinder (DCyl) and 1.24 0.92 DCyl. The CCT and ECD were 670.8 0.32 m and 1485.6 168.6/sq mm respectively. The mean endothelial cell loss after three months was 26.8 4.24% (range: 13.3-38.4%). Dislocation of donor lenticule occurred in six (8.0%) eyes. Graft failure occurred in one case. Conclusions: Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in patients with endothelial dysfunctions with encouraging surgical and visual outcomes. It can be safely combined with MSICS with PCIOL in patients with moderate to severe Fuchs' dystrophy with cataract.
  5,339 641 28
Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in primary and recurrent pterygium
Nermin Karahan, Sirin Baspinar, Metin Ciris, Cetin Lutfi Baydar, Nilgun Kapucuoglu
July-August 2008, 56(4):279-283
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.39663  PMID:18579985
Background: Pterygia are common, benign, fibrovascular, and infiltrative processes of the corneo-conjunctival junction of unknown pathogenesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediates the rate-limiting step in arachidonic acid metabolism. Extensive evidence indicates that the COX-2 prostanoid pathway is involved in inflammation. The aim of the study was to document the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in primary and recurrent pterygia. Materials and Methods: In this study, 21 primary pterygia and 12 recurrent pterygia from subjects undergoing pterygium surgery and six normal corneal-scleral tissue specimens were studied immunohistochemically for COX-2 expression. Results: COX-2 was expressed in primary pterygia and recurrent pterygia specimens. There was a statistically significant difference in COX-2 expressions in fibroblasts between primary and recurrent pterygium cases ( P = 0.001). There were statistically significant differences in COX-2 expressions in surface epithelium ( P = 0.028) and stromal inflammatory cells ( P =0.000) between control tissues and primary pterygia tissues. We also detected statistically significant differences in COX-2 expressions in surface epithelium ( P =0.000), stromal fibroblasts P =0.000 (stromal fibroblasts and inflammatory cells), vessels ( P = 0.027) and inflammatory cells ( P =0.001) between control tissues and recurrent pterygia tissues. Conclusions: This is the first study to document the expression of COX-2 in primary and recurrent pterygia. In our opinion after excision of pterygia, fibroblastic proliferation continues and this contributes to recurrence.
  5,340 563 6
Preferred clinical practice in convergence insufficiency in India: A survey
Sourabh D Patwardhan, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena, Sumeet K Khanduja
July-August 2008, 56(4):303-306
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.39661  PMID:18579989
Purpose: Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment most appropriate for CI. The aim of the study was to investigate the treatment for CI by surveying the ophthalmologists regarding the most common treatment modalities used in India. Materials and Methods: Four hundred questionnaires were distributed amongst ophthalmologists attending different sessions of the Delhi Ophthalmological Society annual conference held in April 2007. Two hundred and three ophthalmologists responded (response rate 50.75%). The responders included 109 private practitioners, 57 consultants attached to teaching institutes and 37 residents. Results: The majority of ophthalmologists (66.7%) claimed encountering >5% outpatient department patients with CI. Pencil push-ups therapy (PPT) was the most common first line of treatment offered by ophthalmologists (79%) followed by synoptophore exercises (18%). Only 3% referred the patients to optometrists. Thirty per cent ophthalmologists claimed good results with PPT, which was significantly higher in private practitioners (35%). Only 26% ophthalmologists explained physiological diplopia to patients on a regular basis and reported significantly higher percentage of patients (46.3%) with good results. Only 12.3% ophthalmologists needed to refer >30% patients for synoptophore exercises. For failure of PPT 86.7% considered lack of compliance as the major reason as perceived by ophthalmologists. Conclusions: This survey suggested that most ophthalmic practitioners prescribed PPT as the initial treatment for CI and had satisfactory results with PPT. The majority of the practitioners did not explain to the patient about physiological diplopia. Explaining physiological diplopia may improve outcome, as perceived from the survey.
  5,253 467 6
Ocular manifestations in bidi industry workers: Possible consequences of occupational exposure to tobacco dust
Saurabh Mittal, Apoorva Mittal, Ramakrishnan Rengappa
July-August 2008, 56(4):319-322
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41415  PMID:18579993
Tobacco consumption is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and premature death but little is known about its deleterious effect on the ocular health of workers handling tobacco. The goal of this study was to identify probable effects of occupational tobacco exposure among south Indian bidi-industry workers. This study included 310 females (mean age, 34.8 10.9 years) actively involved in bidi-rolling presenting with eye symptoms to a tertiary eye care hospital. Results suggested that a wide spectrum of ocular complications exist among these workers. Common ocular symptoms were defective vision, dull-aching headache and eye irritation. The main ocular findings were papillary conjunctival hyperplasia, hyperpigmentation of ocular surface, punctate epithelial erosion or superficial punctate keratitis, cataract or pseudophakia and segmental optic atrophy. Abstaining from work, supplementation of Vitamin B complex rich in B 12 and appropriate surgical or medical management reversed visual loss due to corneal disease or cataract but was not effective in optic neuropathy.
  5,204 423 11
Intracanalicular antibiotics may obviate the need for surgical management of chronic suppurative canaliculitis
E Ravindra Mohan, Sachin Kabra, Priti Udhay, HN Madhavan
July-August 2008, 56(4):338-340
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41423  PMID:18580001
Chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis is an important cause of ocular surface discomfort. Treatment with topical antibiotics is often inadequate and surgical treatment by canaliculotomy and canalicular curettage has been the mainstay of treatment in the past. The role of canalicular antibiotic irrigation has been inadequately studied. We report the clinical features, microbiological profile and treatment outcome in a series of 12 patients with suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis. Two patients had Actinomyces infection, five had Nocardia infection and seven patients had polymicrobial infection. Three patients had resolution of canaliculitis on combination broad-spectrum topical antibiotic therapy using ciprofloxacin and fortified cefazolin. In nine patients, topical antibiotic therapy was combined with canalicular irrigation using fortified cefazolin. All patients had excellent resolution of canaliculitis without the need for surgical treatment. Availability of broad-spectrum antibiotics and canalicular irrigation may offer an alternative to surgery in the management of suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis.
  4,996 413 22
Polycythemia vera presenting with bilateral papilledema: A rare case report
S Parija, MM Mohapatra, BK Pattnaik
July-August 2008, 56(4):327-329
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41418  PMID:18579996
A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradual onset of headache, vomiting and blurring of vision of 28 days duration. Ophthalmological examination revealed normal anterior segment and pupillary reflex. No abnormality was detected in the vitreous. Optic disc showed features of advanced papilledema with normal macula and retinal periphery in both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and counting fingers close range in the left eye. Non-contrast computed tomography of brain was normal and magnetic resonance imaging showed sagittal sinus thrombosis without any evidence of venous infarction or intracranial mass. Routine hematological investigations revealed increased hemoglobin level, packed cell volume and leucocytosis. Further investigation revealed increased Vitamin B12 and decreased serum erythropoietin. A diagnosis of polycythemia vera was made from the above findings. This case is being presented for the rarity of association of polycythemia vera with bilateral advanced papilledema due to sagittal sinus thrombosis.
  4,876 354 7
Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy in superficial corneal degenerations: Efficacy in a rural population of north India
Aparna Rao, Uma Sridhar, AK Gupta
July-August 2008, 56(4):297-302
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.39664  PMID:18579988
Aim: To evaluate the applicability and efficacy of superficial keratectomy with transplantation of preserved amniotic membrane in superficial corneal degenerations in a rural population of Northern India in terms of visual improvement and surface regularization. Settings: Peripheral referral center in rural north India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective non-comparative interventional case series where 24 eyes of 20 farmers from peripheral rural areas (M:F = 19:1) with visually significant superficial degenerative disorders (15 eyes with climatic droplet keratopathy one of which was associated with Salzmann nodular degeneration and nine eyes with band-shaped keratopathy) were subjected to amniotic membrane transplantation (single or multiple layer) combined with superficial keratectomy. Subjective and objective outcomes after surgery were evaluated and analyzed and statistical significance of the outcomes in various disorders was evaluated. Results: Eighty-eight per cent (21 eyes) had symptomatic relief from distressing preoperative symptoms while postoperative visual improvement by two or more lines was achieved in 23 eyes (96%) over a mean follow-up period of 26.8 10.2 months. The surface irregularity present preoperatively was relieved in 23 cases while postoperative decline of vision with visually significant scarring was seen in one case (4%), which was labeled as failure. Conclusions: Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy helped achieve subjective comfort, visual rehabilitation and clinical regularization of the corneal surface in superficial corneal degenerations during the mean followup of 26.8 10.2 months in rural setups.
  4,712 458 6
A pre- and post-treatment evaluation of vision-related quality of life in uveitis
Arvind Venkataraman, SR Rathinam
July-August 2008, 56(4):307-312
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.39662  PMID:18579990
Aim: To study the effect of treatment on vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in uveitis patients. Materials and Methods: Interviewer-administered questionnaire-based evaluation of visual function and VR-QOL in Tamil-speaking adult patients with active uveitis at presentation and follow-up by the same interviewer. Results: Ninety-eight patients participated in this study. There was a statistically significant improvement in VR-QOL in all the scales following treatment ( P < 0.001). Patients with chronic uveitis showed better improvement upon treatment than patients with acute uveitis. The visual symptoms scale showed moderate gains following treatment (effect size 0.56). Persons with bilateral disease had poorer mean scores compared to those with unilateral disease. Visual acuity was closely correlated with VR-QOL scores. Conclusion: The VR-QOL measurement has shown that it is sensitive to demonstrate the problems of patients with uveitis irrespective of their demographic profile. The scores improved significantly in patients with uveitis following treatment and have shown close correlation to visual acuity thus demonstrating that VR-QOL is effective in assessing the response to treatment.
  4,506 468 11
Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values
Younis Abed EL-Wahhab Skaik
July-August 2008, 56(4):341-341
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41424  PMID:18580002
  3,947 530 11
Corneal edema following diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in an eye with secondary glaucoma
Harsh Kumar, Shaifali Gupta, Ashu Agarwal
July-August 2008, 56(4):317-318
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41414  PMID:18579992
A 70-year-old man had undergone a complicated cataract extraction followed by repair of iris prolapse ending up with secondary glaucoma. Refusing routine filtering surgery, patient underwent contact transconjunctival diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. This report highlights the occurrence of corneal edema restricted to the inferior half of cornea following a diode laser cyclophotocoagulation performed in the inferior 180 degrees. The necessity to perform a routine specular microscopy in all such cases is highlighted, especially in eyes with good visual acuity.
  3,760 571 1
Missed diagnosis of a wooden intra-orbital foreign body
Sheeja S John, Thaj A Rehman, Deepa John, Renu S Raju
July-August 2008, 56(4):322-324
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41416  PMID:18579994
Intraorbital foreign bodies often present a confusing clinical picture. Wooden foreign bodies are notorious for remaining quiescent for a long time, before presenting with a variety of complications. The wound of entry may often be small and self-sealing. Wooden foreign bodies also show a propensity to break during attempted removal. Intraorbital wood is often not detected by standard diagnostic tests like the computed tomography scan, adding to the diagnostic dilemma. The presence of an intraorbital mass with a discharging sinus should evoke suspicion of a retained organic foreign body, regardless of the time interval between the trauma and current presentation. It is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion in such cases to avoid misdiagnosis. We report an unusual case of a missed wooden intraorbital foreign body, which spontaneously extruded after five years.
  3,791 364 17
Bilateral retinitis following Chikun- gunya fever
Krishna R Murthy, Nandita Venkataraman, Vidya Satish, Kalpana Babu
July-August 2008, 56(4):329-331
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41419  PMID:18579997
A 35-year-old male with a history of chikungunya fever, presented with diminution of vision in the right eye of one-week duration. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers 2 meters and 20/20 (Snellens) in the right and left eyes respectively. A diagnosis of neuroretinitis was made in the right eye while left eye showed features of retinitis. ELISA (serum) and polymerase chain reaction (aqueous) were positive for herpes simplex virus. The lesions did not show any response to antiviral or steroid treatment and appeared to be self-limiting. At five months follow-up, lesions had resolved well with BCVA of 20/120 and 20/20 in the right and left eyes respectively.
  3,730 381 22
Illuminated curved 25-gauge vitrectomy probe for removal of subsclerotomy vitreous in vitreoretinal surgery
Kakarla V Chalam, Gaurav Y Shah, Swati Agarwal, Shailesh K Gupta
July-August 2008, 56(4):331-334
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41420  PMID:18579998
Incarceration of vitreous in sclerotomy sites during pars plana vitrectomy can lead to wound-related complications similar to vitreous incarceration in cataract surgery. We describe an illuminated curved 25-gauge vitrectomy probe for removing vitreous from sclerotomy sites. Polyester tubing is used to secure a fiber optic endoilluminator (0.5 mm) with the curved 25-gauge vitrector (0.5 mm). The resultant illuminated curved vitrector (20 G) has a diameter of 1.0 mm. It facilitates complete removal of vitreous around the internal sclerotomies under direct visualization in both phakic and pseudophakic eyes. The same was confirmed with ultrasound biomicroscopy of the sclerotomy sites. Curved vitrector reduces postoperative complications related to incarcerated vitreous in phakic and pseudophakic eyes and other sclerotomy-related wound complications.
  3,689 233 2
Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE
Mamta Mittal, KR Sathish, Prashant G Bhatia, BS Chidamber
July-August 2008, 56(4):325-326
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41417  PMID:18579995
A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.
  3,307 309 6
Finer nuances of clinical study agreements for research trials
Barun Kumar Nayak
July-August 2008, 56(4):267-268
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41409  PMID:18579983
  2,946 392 2
Neurothekeoma of the eyelid: A case report
Sunu Mathew, BN Nandeesh, Usha Vasu, Shon George Michael
July-August 2008, 56(4):334-336
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41421  PMID:18579999
The purpose of this article is to describe a rare benign tumor of nerve sheath origin arising from the eyelid in an elderly male. Local excision was done and histopathological examination revealed a neurothekeoma. Six months later the patient was doing well with no recurrence. The case was unique in that the patient was an elderly male while neurothekeoma is commonly seen on the face of young adults, especially females.
  3,022 240 6
Neurotrophic keratitis in a patient with dihydroxypyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
Bharat Kapoor, Ezzedin A Luhishi, Andrew KK Chung, Jakobus C Pauw
July-August 2008, 56(4):336-337
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41422  PMID:18580000
We describe a case of neurotrophic keratitis in association with dihydroxypyrimidine dehydrogenase (DHPD) deficiency. Ocular manifestations in patients with DHPD are rare and neurotrophic keratitis has never been reported before. A six-year-old boy who was a known case of DHPD deficiency and born of a consanguineous marriage presented to our clinic with non-healing corneal ulcers in both eyes. Reduced corneal sensations were detected and the patient was started on lubricating eye drops. The patient continues to be on lubricant eye drops and there has been no recurrence of the disease.
  2,817 248 -
Effectiveness of vision stimulation therapy in congenitally blind children
K Ilango, P Vijayalakshmi
July-August 2008, 56(4):342-343
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41427  PMID:18580003
  2,754 267 1
Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis following cataract surgery
Jason HM Lim, Tiakumzuk Sangtam, Sachin M George, Kah-Guan Au Eong
July-August 2008, 56(4):342-342
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41426  PMID:18580004
  2,394 299 -
Sarcoid-induced symblepharon
Amy T Kelmenson, Scott CN Oliver, Vikram D Durairaj
July-August 2008, 56(4):344-345
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41430  PMID:18580006
  2,247 214 3
Retinitis pigmentosa associated with blepharophimosis, blue dot cataract and primary inferior oblique overaction
Pramod Kumar Pandey, Pankaj Vats, Navjot Kaur, Ajit G Kulkarni
July-August 2008, 56(4):343-343
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41428  PMID:18580005
  2,151 170 2
Fatal orbitocranial injury by fencing and spectacle sidebar
Vinay V Shahpurkar, Amit Agrawal
July-August 2008, 56(4):345-346
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.41431  PMID:18580007
  1,904 193 5
Authors' reply
Rajul Parikh, Annie Mathai, Shefali Parikh, G Chandra Sekhar, Ravi Thomas
July-August 2008, 56(4):341-341
  1,812 127 2
Authors' reply
Vasumathy Vedantham, Jitendra Jethani, Anil Agarwal, Perumalsamy Vijayalakshmi
July-August 2008, 56(4):343-344
  1,632 129 -