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   2011| January-February  | Volume 59 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 16, 2010

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Clinical features and management of posttraumatic subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit
Usha R Kim, Vipul Arora, Akash D Shah, Urvashi Solanki
January-February 2011, 59(1):55-58
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73721  PMID:21157076
Traumatic subperiosteal hematoma (SpH) usually presents late, after the initial trauma. It is generally seen in young males. Computed tomography is the best mode of imaging and helps to rule out orbital fracture or associated subdural hematoma. We present the clinical features and management of four patients seen at the orbit clinic with SpH. Management is based on time of presentation, visual acuity and any communicating bleed. The prognosis of traumatic SpH is excellent if treated with an individualized patient approach.
  5,796 267 3
Is glaucoma blindness a disease of deprivation and ignorance? A case-control study for late presentation of glaucoma in India
Parikshit Gogate, Roma Deshpande, Vidya Chelerkar, Swapna Deshpande, Madan Deshpande
January-February 2011, 59(1):29-35
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73720  PMID:21157069
Aim: The aim was to identify the presenting symptoms and social risk factors for late presentation of primary glaucoma in newly diagnosed cases. Materials and Methods: It was a case-control study in a tertiary eye care center in Maharashtra, India. Newly diagnosed patients with primary glaucoma were classified as cases (late presenters) where there was no perception of light in one eye or severe visual field loss affecting an area within 20° of fixation or a cup-disc (C:D) ratio ≥0.8 and controls (early presenters), presenting relative scotoma within 20° of fixation or a C:D ratio <0.8, but >0.5. All patients underwent a comprehensive ocular examination including gonioscopy, perimetry, and detailed family and social history. Occupation, education, and socioeconomic status were graded. SPSS version 12.0 was used, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Gradual progressive painless loss of vision was the commonest symptom (175, 87.5%). Primary angle closure glaucoma was more common in females (P = 0.001) and lower socioeconomic groups (P = 0.05). Patients who were less educated were more likely to have late presentation of glaucoma (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.25). Knowledge of family history of glaucoma (P = 0.80, odds ratio = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.36-3.71) and eye clinic attendance in past 2 years still resulted in late presentation (P = 0.45, odds ratio = 1.34, 95% CI, 0.63-2.82). Conclusion: Lack of education and awareness of glaucoma were major risk factors for late presentation.
  5,280 482 3
Dimensions of the foveal avascular zone using the Heidelberg retinal angiogram-2 in normal eyes
Deepa John, Thomas Kuriakose, Suresh Devasahayam, Andrew Braganza
January-February 2011, 59(1):9-11
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73706  PMID:21157065
Purpose: The purpose was to study the dimensions of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) using Heidelberg Retinal Angiogram-2 (HRA-2; Heidelberg Engineering GmBH, Dossenheim, Germany). Materials and Methods: An observational study of the FAZ area and circumference was done with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) using HRA-2 in 31 normal individuals. The FAZ was studied using both contrast-adjusted and nonadjusted methods. Contrast adjustment was done to obtain better visualization of the finer capillaries around the fovea enabling more precise measurements of the FAZ in normal eyes. Results: The mean area of the FAZ calculated by the contrast-adjusted method was 0.2753 mm 2 (±0.074) and the mean circumference was 2.22 mm (±0.048). By the conventional method, the area and circumference of the FAZ were 0.6241 mm 2 (±0.177) and 3.23 mm (±0.454), respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of area and circumference of FAZ using contrast-adjusted methods were significantly smaller than the conventional method.
  4,522 346 1
Eye donation - Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia
Sulatha Bhandary, Rajesh Khanna, Krishna A Rao, Lavanya G Rao, Kamala D Lingam, V Binu
January-February 2011, 59(1):41-45
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73727  PMID:21157071
Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions) which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Results: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69%) participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009). Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.02). Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Conclusions: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.
  4,240 411 2
Phrynoderma in a patient with megaloblastic anemia
Vishal Sharma, Mukul P Agarwal, Subhash Giri
January-February 2011, 59(1):72-73
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73704  PMID:21157085
  4,217 167 -
Distichiasis-lymphedema syndrome with optic disc pit
K Kaarthigeyan, M Ramprakash, G Kalpana
January-February 2011, 59(1):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73703  PMID:21157084
  4,066 170 -
Intraocular lens exchange through a 3.2-mm corneal incision for opacified intraocular lenses
Anil Kubaloglu, Esin Sogutlu Sari, Arif Koytak, Yasin Cinar, Kazim Erol, Yusuf Ozertürk
January-February 2011, 59(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73713  PMID:21157067
Aim: The aim was to evaluate visual and refractive results and complications of intraocular lens (IOL) exchange through a 3.2 mm corneal incision for opacified IOLs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 33 eyes of 32 patients with IOL opacification requiring an IOL exchange between July 2003 and March 2007. Exchange surgery was performed through a 3.2-mm temporal clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a new foldable hydrophobic IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), topographical astigmatism, and refractive cylinder were evaluated. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was calculated and complications were recorded. Results: Opacification was observed in 25 eyes (76%) with Aqua-Sense, 3 eyes (9%) with Hydroview, 3 eyes (9%) with MemoryLens IOLs, and 2 eyes (6%) with DgR. The mean follow-up period was 36.54 months. An uneventful IOL exchange was achieved in 18 eyes (55%). Zonular dehiscence occurred in 9 eyes (27%), and posterior capsule tear developed in 4 eyes (12%). The mean preoperative BSCVA (mean ± standard deviation, decimal scale) was 0.13 ± 0.08 (mean: 20/150, range 20/2000 to 20/60) and improved to 0.63 ± 0.18 (mean: 20/32, range 20/60 to 20/20, P < 0.001). The mean SIA was 0.70 D. Seven eyes (21%) had 0.5 D or lower SIA. Conclusion: IOL exchange is a technically challenging procedure with potential risks of reversing the advantages of a prior small-incision cataract surgery. The use of a small corneal incision for IOL exchange could preserve the advantages of modern phacoemulsification surgery with acceptable SIA related to the procedure.
  3,487 330 1
Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera
Mahesh P Shanmugam
January-February 2011, 59(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73718  PMID:21157075
Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.
  3,523 287 2
Optic disc topography in normal Indian eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography
Tarannum Mansoori, Kalluri Viswanath, Nagalla Balakrishna
January-February 2011, 59(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73716  PMID:21157068
Purpose: The aim was to study optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in normal Indian eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)/scanning laser ophthamoscope (SLO). Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven eyes of 157 normal subjects of various age groups underwent ONH imaging with spectral OCT/SLO and the parameters obtained were correlated with disc size. The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on various ONH parameters were also studied. Results: The mean optic disc area was 3.36 ± 0.64 mm 2 (range, 2.13-5.08 mm 2 ), mean rim area was 2.49 ± 0.58 mm 2 (range, 1.20-3.62 mm 2 ), and mean cup area was 1.10 ± 0.75 mm 2 (range, 0-3.07 mm 2 ). The disc area showed significant positive correlation with the rim area, cup area, horizontal cup disc ratio, vertical cup disc ratio, cup disc area ratio, mean cup depth, and maximum cup depth (P < 0.001). Neither gender nor refractive error showed any significant difference in various ONH parameters. ONH parameters did not show significant change with age except for rim area which declined with the advancing age (r = -0.25, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The quantitative measurement of ONH topography obtained with this study provides a normative database for an Indian population with spectral OCT/SLO. As optic disc area influences ONH topography, disc size should to be considered when evaluating optic disc for progressive optic neuropathies such as glaucoma.
  3,409 369 5
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography features of multiple subfoveal retinal pigment epithelial tears after intravitreal bevacizumab
Kakarla V Chalam, Ravi K Murthy, Shailesh K Gupta, Vikram S Brar
January-February 2011, 59(1):47-48
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73712  PMID:21157072
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tear has been described to occur spontaneously, after laser photocoagulation and in recent times, after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. In the latter case, the rapid contraction of the choroidal vascular membrane underneath a serous RPE detachment is believed to be the underlying cause. Preservation of good visual acuity after the occurrence of RPE tear with continued use of intravitreal VEGF agents has been reported. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of multiple RPE tears with the use of intravitreal bevacizumab and also correlate the preservation of visual acuity with features seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
  3,555 196 2
Dynamic focal retinal arteriolar vasospasm in migraine
Anmar M Abdul-Rahman, Jagjit S Gilhotra, Dinesh Selva
January-February 2011, 59(1):51-53
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73717  PMID:21157074
A 48-year-old man presented following an episode of sudden onset simultaneous inferior altitudinal visual loss in his left eye and visual obscuration with shimmering in the inferonasal quadrant of the right eye. Clinical examination demonstrated left superior hemiretinal artery occlusion and an area of focal dynamic spasm along the right superior temporal branch retinal artery, the arteriolar spastic cycle was about 2 sec in duration. Hematological (including complete blood count, thrombophilia screen, vasculitic screen and serum magnesium), carotid, and cardiac investigations were normal. He was given acetazolamide 500 mg orally, timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops once daily and sublingual amyl-nitrate 0.8 mg, and maintained on felodipine 10 mg/day and aspirin 100 mg/day. The area of focal arteriolar spasm in the right eye resolved over two months. To our knowledge there are no prior reports of photographically documented dynamic focal retinal vascular spasm on a MEDLINE and PUBMED search.
  3,487 220 6
Changing concepts of angle closure glaucoma: A review
Rajesh Sinha, Gaurav Kumar, Shveta Jindal Bali, Tanuj Dada
January-February 2011, 59(1):75-78
  2,671 540 -
Bilateral central retinal arterial obstruction following head trauma: A very rare case report
Saumendranath Ghose, Parida Subhabrata
January-February 2011, 59(1):66-68
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73731  PMID:21157081
A 30-year-old patient presented at our outpatient department with complaints of severe loss of vision in both eyes following a head injury six days back. He also had a fracture at left side of the mandible and a few bruises over the left cheek. External ocular examination revealed subconjuctival hemorrhage in the left eye and bilateral sluggishly reacting pupils. Fundus examination showed white- out retina and a cherry red spot at the macula in both eyes. A clinical diagnosis of bilateral central retinal arterial obstruction (CRAO) was made which was later confirmed by fundus fluorescence angiography. Bilateral CRAO is a rare disease usually found in patients with cardiac embolic diseases, giant cell arteritis or systemic vascular inflammations. Our case is the second reported case in English literature of bilateral CRAO following head trauma.
  2,680 249 2
An unusual case of intraorbital foreign body and its management
Bipasha Mukherjee, Shubhra Goel, Nirmala Subramanian
January-February 2011, 59(1):58-60
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73725  PMID:21157077
Intraorbital foreign bodies are usually the result of accidental trauma and can lead to considerable morbidity. We report an unusual case of an industrial injury in a plastic manufacuring unit wherein hot molten plastic splashed and solidified inside the orbit. The resultant increased intraorbital pressure led to loss of vision in that eye. The extreme temperature of the foreign body caused extensive thermal damage to the surrounding adnexal structures. Staged reconstructive surgery was undertaken to repair the damage, with an acceptable final cosmetic outcome. Employment of protective eye wear to prevent such accidents in high-risk occupations should be made mandatory.
  2,658 266 1
Retinal nitric oxide and malonyldialdehyde levels following photodynamic therapy
Peykan Turkcuoglu, Cem Ozturkmen, Nevin Ilhan, Julide Kurt, Orhan Aydemir, Ulku Celiker, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Aymen Rashid
January-February 2011, 59(1):5-8
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73705  PMID:21157064
Background: To determine the retinal nitric oxide (NO) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels following photodynamic therapy (PDT). Materials and Methods: Seven Dutch-belted rabbits received dextrose, while seven others received 2 mg/kg verteporfin infusion over a period of 15 minutes in a dim-lit room. Irradiation to a 1.5 mm diameter intact chorioretinal area in the right eye of verteporfin-infused rabbits, was started 5 minutes after the end of infusion. Three groups were control (dextrose infusion), infusion with verteporfin (left eyes were not irradiated), and irradiation after verteporfin injection (right eyes were irradiated). On the fifth day of the experiment, the eyes were enucleated. The retinas were subsequently frozen and homogenized. Nitrite, a stable end-product of NO and MDA, was measured using the spectrophotometer. Protein concentrations were measured by the Lowry method. Tissue NO and MDA levels were expressed as μmol/gprt and nmol/mgprt, respectively. Results: The mean retinal NO and MDA levels of the control, infusion, and irradiation groups were 24.67 ± 6.66, 0.11 ± 0.02; 45.90 ± 15.52, 0.21 ± 0.09; and 84.43 ± 14.96 μmol/gprt, 0.58 ± 0.14 nmol/mgprt, respectively. The mean retinal NO levels were significantly elevated in the infusion and irradiation groups compared with the control group ( P :0.004; P :0.001). The mean retinal MDA levels were significantly elevated in the infusion and irradiation groups compared to the control one ( P :0.026; P :0.001). Also the mean retinal NO and MDA levels in the irradiation group were found to be significantly higher than the infusion group ( P :0.018; P :0.018). Conclusion: Not only PDT, but also verteporfin infusion alone resulted in NO and MDA level increments in the retina, which might be toxic.
  2,625 275 2
Combination photodynamic therapy and bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization associated with toxoplasmosis
Pukhraj Rishi, Anusha Venkataraman, Ekta Rishi
January-February 2011, 59(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73728  PMID:21157079
A 14-year-old girl presenting with visual loss in both eyes was diagnosed to have healed toxoplasma retinochoroiditis in the right eye with active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to toxoplasmosis in the left. She underwent combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal bevacizumab as primary treatment. PDT was performed as per the 'Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration by Photodynamic therapy' study protocol and was followed by intravitreal bevacizumab after 2 days. CNV regressed at 8 weeks of follow-up and remained stable at 8 months of follow-up. The initial visual acuity improved from 20/120 to 20/30. Combination therapy with PDT and intravitreal bevacizumab appears to be effective in the treatment of CNV secondary to toxoplasma retinochoroiditis.
  2,554 209 4
Efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03% in reducing intraocular pressure in patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma: A preliminary study
Prateep Vyas, Uday Naik, Jayasheel B Gangaiah
January-February 2011, 59(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73708  PMID:21157066
Context: Peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; synechiae anterior to functional trabecular meshwork) formation in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) hampers access to uveoscleral outflow. Thus, the role of bimatoprost in such patients with 360° synechiae was evaluated. Aims: To assess efficacy and safety profile of bimatoprost 0.03% in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma patients. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative, selective analysis, single-center pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 eyes of 20 Indian chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients with IOP greater than 21 mmHg, 360° PAS and no visual potential in the study eye underwent detailed eye examination. Baseline IOP was measured and YAG peripheral iridotomy was performed for complete angle-closure reconfirmation. Bimatoprost 0.03% was administered for 8 weeks as once-daily evening dose. IOP reduction within treatment group was determined with "paired t-test." Results: The mean reduction in IOP from baseline to 8 weeks of bimatoprost therapy was 15.3 ± 9.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). The most commonly observed adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia (35%). Bimatoprost was well tolerated in the study. Conclusions: In this study, exclusively involving patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma and no visual potential, bimatoprost 0.03% treatment demonstrated a statistically significant IOP reduction. Hence, it can be inferred that bimatoprost 0.03% is an efficacious treatment modality in this subgroup of patients for reducing IOP.
  2,350 353 2
Severe aseptic orbital cellulitis with subtenon carboplatin for intraocular retinoblastoma
Parag K Shah, N Kalpana, V Narendran, Minu Ramakrishnan
January-February 2011, 59(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73714  PMID:21157073
Retinoblastoma is a rare intraocular tumor of childhood. Chemoreduction followed by laser or cryotherapy is the treatment of choice. Subtenon carboplatin injection is also an accepted treatment modality for vitreous seeds, along with systemic chemotherapy. Transient periocular edema, optic neuropathy and fibrosis of orbital tissues are the known side effects of subteneon carboplatin injection. We report a case of severe aseptic orbital cellulitis with necrosis and prolapse of the conjunctiva 48 h after the injection, which resolved well on only conservative management.
  2,410 218 2
Use of smart lacrimal probes
Mihir Kothari
January-February 2011, 59(1):70-71
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73702  PMID:21157083
  2,208 189 -
Visual acuity and electroretinography findings 3 ½ years after the first intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity
Parag K Shah, Rodney J Morris, V Narendran, N Kalpana
January-February 2011, 59(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73707  PMID:21157086
  2,105 216 5
The IJO Journey: Learn, Educate and Evolve
Ranjit H Maniar, Barun K Nayak
January-February 2011, 59(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.74016  PMID:21157063
  1,921 353 -
Impact of early rise of intraocular pressure on visual outcome following diabetic vitrectomy
Yog Raj Sharma, Archna Pruthi, Raj Vardhan Azad, Atul Kumar, Rashim Mannan
January-February 2011, 59(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73724  PMID:21157070
Objective: The objective was to study the incidence and risk factors for an early rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to correlate its impact on visual outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective study. IOP and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for 73 cases of PDR (52 males and 21 females) who underwent PPV were recorded at day 1, week 1, and months 1, 3, and 6. Risk factors for the early IOP rise, defined as IOP ≥ 30 mmHg at day 1, were evaluated using cross-tabulation and the t-test. Results: Mean IOP at day 1 was 21.8 ± 9.8 mmHg with 15 cases (20.5%) having an early rise in IOP. Risk factors for the early IOP rise included intraoperative fibrovascular frond removal (P = 0.003), lens removal (P = 0.043), and intraoperative vitreous bleed (P = 0.008). The early rise in IOP was also associated with consistently raised IOP (P = 0.02), defined as IOP > 21 mmHg during first three consecutive follow-up visits. Further, difference in BCVA at 6 months among the two groups, i.e., with and without an early IOP rise was statistically significant (3.11 ± 1.52 logMAR vs. 2.11 ± 1.49 logMAR; P = 0.025). Conclusion: An early rise in IOP is a significant risk factor which compromises the visual outcome of patients undergoing diabetic vitrectomy.
  1,855 246 1
Immunosuppressive therapy in inflammatory ocular surface disease post Steven Johnson syndrome
C Balkrishnan, Vishnu Sharma, Anupama Vyas
January-February 2011, 59(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73701  PMID:21157082
  1,885 196 -
Intra-operative assessment of toric intra-ocular lens implantation
Ioannis T Tsinopoulos, Chrysanthos Symeonidis, Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Dimitris Tsakpinis, Nikolaos G Ziakas, Stavros A Dimitrakos
January-February 2011, 59(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73726  PMID:21157078
We report a new procedure for intra-operative toric intra-ocular lens (IOL) axis assessment in order to achieve optimal implantation. IOL implantation procedure was directly recorded. An assessor estimated the angle formed by the marked 0-180 axis and the toric IOL axis after implantation with the use of the appropriate software. If IOL implantation was assessed to be inaccurate, the surgeon was advised to correct IOL positioning by rotating the IOL clockwise. The assessment procedure was repeated until accurate IOL positioning was achieved.
  1,399 229 -
Effectiveness of diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation in patients following silicone oil-induced ocular hypertension in Chinese eyes
Rita Gangwani, David T L Liu, Nathan Congdon, Philip T H Lam, Vincent Y W Lee, Nancy S Y Yuen, Dennis S C Lam
January-February 2011, 59(1):64-66
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.73730  PMID:21157080
We evaluated the effectiveness of diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in nine patients having raised IOP following use of silicone oil (SO) for retinal detachment (RD) surgery in a retrospective observational case series. Diode laser TSCPC was applied at a power setting of 1.75 to 2.5 watts, for two sec with a maximum of 30 applications. The patients were followed up for 40 to 312 weeks. The mean pre-laser IOP was 32.06 mm Hg (SD 7.32). The mean post-laser IOP at one month, three months and six months was 17.89 mm Hg (SD 8.23), 21.89 mm Hg (SD 8.16) and 21.67 mm Hg (SD 7.55) respectively. The final IOP (at the last follow-up) was 19.56 mm Hg (SD 7.85) (P=0.021). Seven of them had undergone SO removal. In our observation, effectiveness of TSCPC in long-term control of SO-induced ocular hypertension was limited as compared to short-term control of IOP.
  1,450 174 1