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   2014| January  | Volume 62 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 31, 2014

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Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems
Naresh Kumar Yadav, Chaitra Jayadev, Anand Rajendran, Manish Nagpal
January 2014, 62(1):50-54
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126179  PMID:24492501
Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.
  7,683 1,287 1
The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting
Anand Vinekar, Clare Gilbert, Mangat Dogra, Mathew Kurian, Gangadharan Shainesh, Bhujang Shetty, Noel Bauer
January 2014, 62(1):41-49
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126178  PMID:24492500
Aim: To report the Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP) program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in underserved rural areas using an indigenously developed tele-ROP model. Materials and Methods: KIDROP currently provides ROP screening and treatment services in three zones and 81 neonatal units in Karnataka, India. Technicians were trained to use a portable Retcam Shuttle (Clarity, USA) and validated against ROP experts performing indirect ophthalmoscopy. An indigenously developed 20-point score (STAT score) graded their ability (Level I to III) to image and decide follow-up based on a three-way algorithm. Images were also uploaded on a secure tele-ROP platform and accessed and reported by remote experts on their smart phones (iPhone, Apple). Results: 6339 imaging sessions of 1601 infants were analyzed. A level III technician agreed with 94.3% of all expert decisions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for treatment grade disease were 95.7, 93.2, 81.5 and 98.6 respectively. The kappa for technicians to decide discharge of babies was 0.94 (P < 0.001). Only 0.4% of infants needing treatment were missed.The kappa agreement of experts reporting on the iPhone vs Retcam for treatment requiring and mild ROP were 0.96 and 0.94 (P < 0.001) respectively. Conclusions: This is the first and largest real-world program to employ accredited non-physicians to grade and report ROP. The KIDROP tele-ROP model demonstrates that ROP services can be delivered to the outreach despite lack of specialists and may be useful in other middle-income countries with similar demographics.
  7,243 591 6
Transforming ocular surface stem cell research into successful clinical practice
Virender S Sangwan, Rajat Jain, Sayan Basu, Anupam B Bagadi, Shraddha Sureka, Indumathi Mariappan, Sheila MacNeil
January 2014, 62(1):29-40
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126173  PMID:24492499
It has only been a quarter of a century since the discovery of adult stem cells at the human corneo-scleral limbus. These limbal stem cells are responsible for generating a constant and unending supply of corneal epithelial cells throughout life, thus maintaining a stable and uniformly refractive corneal surface. Establishing this hitherto unknown association between ocular surface disease and limbal dysfunction helped usher in therapeutic approaches that successfully addressed blinding conditions such as ocular burns, which were previously considered incurable. Subsequent advances in ocular surface biology through basic science research have translated into innovations that have made the surgical technique of limbal stem cell transplantation simpler and more predictable. This review recapitulates the basic biology of the limbus and the rationale and principles of limbal stem cell transplantation in ocular surface disease. An evidence-based algorithm is presented, which is tailored to clinical considerations such as laterality of affliction, severity of limbal damage and concurrent need for other procedures. Additionally, novel findings in the form of factors influencing the survival and function of limbal stem cells after transplantation and the possibility of substituting limbal cells with epithelial stem cells of other lineages is also discussed. Finally this review focuses on the future directions in which both basic science and clinical research in this field is headed.
  5,852 539 -
Decision making nomogram for intrastromal corneal ring segments in keratoconus
Rohit Shetty, Sharon D'Souza, Sarika Ramachandran, Mathew Kurian, Rudy M M A Nuijts
January 2014, 62(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126170  PMID:24492498
Purpose: To create a nomogram for the insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) (Intacs® ) in eyes with keratoconus. Setting: Tertiary eye care center in South India. Materials and Methods: This prospective, non-randomized, interventional case series used a self-designed decision-making nomogram for the selection of ICRS in keratoconus patients based on the centration of the cone, mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), and mean keratometry (Km) values. The 3, 6, and 12 months clinical outcomes were compared to historical controls. Primary endpoints were improvement in uncorrected and best-corrected vision and change in the keratometric values. Results: Group A comprised of 52 eyes of 50 patients that followed the nomogram, while Group B comprised of 25 eyes of 23 non-nomogram historical controls matched for baseline parameters.In Group A, the uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) improved from 0.16 ± 0.15 to 0.25 ± 0.16 (P < 0.001), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) from 0.58 ± 0.2 to 0.69 ± 0.21 (P = 0.022), MRSE from -5.41 ± 4.94 to -1.71 ± 2.88 (P < 0.001), Km from 51.77 ± 5.45 to 48.63 ± 4.37 (P < 0.001), and astigmatism reduced from 5.86 ± 2.61 to 4.91 ± 2.72 diopters (P < 0.001).In Group B, improvement in the average MRSE was from -6.44 ± 5.32 to -3.26 ± 2.82 (P < 0.013) and in the average Km from 53.64 ± 5.32 to 50.31 ± 5.02 (P < 0.001). Other parameters did not improve significantly.A statistically significant difference was present in the percentage of patients achieving a good clinical outcome between the two groups (P < 0.001; Chi-square). Conclusion: The nomogram provides a means to choose the appropriate ICRS, hence improving the outcome in patients with keratoconus.
  4,743 758 1
Cytokines and Biologics in non-infectious autoimmune uveitis: Bench to Bedside
Rupesh Agrawal, Jayant Iyer, John Connolly, Daiju Iwata, Stephen Teoh
January 2014, 62(1):74-81
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126187  PMID:24492505
Intraocular inflammatory eye disease is one of the important causes of ocular morbidity. Even though the prevalence of uveitis is less common in relation to diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or age related macular degeneration, the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease makes it more unique. Putative uveitogenic retinal antigens incite innate immunity by the process of antigen mimicry and have been shown to be associated in patients with intraocular inflammatory disease by numerous experimental studies. Laboratory diagnostic tools to aid the etiologic association in intraocular inflammatory disease have evolved over the last two decades and we are entering into an era of molecular diagnostic tests. Sophisticated novel technologies such as multiplex bead assays to assess biological signatures have revolutionized the management of complex refractory uveitis. Nevertheless, there is still a long way to go to establish the causal relationship between these biomarkers and specific uveitic entities. Experimental studies have shown the supreme role of infliximab in the management of Behcet's disease. Despite significant experimental and case control studies, the deficiency of randomized clinical trials using these biologic agents has handicapped us in exploring them as a front line therapy in severe refractory uveitis. Studies still need to answer the safety of these potentially life threatening drugs in a selected group of patients and determine when to commence and for how long the treatment has to be given. This review article covers some basic concepts of cytokines in uveitis and their potential application for therapy in refractory uveitis.
  4,313 504 2
Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery
Arun C Gulani
January 2014, 62(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126165  PMID:24492495
Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a "Vision Corrective Surgeon". This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art!
  4,200 456 1
Adaptive optics imaging of the retina
Rajani Battu, Supriya Dabir, Anjani Khanna, Anupama Kiran Kumar, Abhijit Sinha Roy
January 2014, 62(1):60-65
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126185  PMID:24492503
Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.
  3,867 427 -
Differential systemic gene expression profile in patients with diabetic macular edema: Responders versus nonresponders to standard treatment
Supriya S Dabir, Debashish Das, Jeyabalan Nallathambi, Shwetha Mangalesh, Naresh Kumar Yadav, Jan S A G Schouten
January 2014, 62(1):66-73
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126186  PMID:24492504
Introduction: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a vision-threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. The current practice of management is a" trial and error "method of using intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)'' or steroids to treat the patient and watch the response. However, if the patient's genetic profile helps us choose appropriate medicine, it would help customize treatment option for each patient. This forms the basis of our study. Materials and Methods: A case-control, prospective, observational series, where DME patients were treated with bevacizumab and subclassified as treatment naοve, treatment responders, and treatment nonresponders. Blood samples of 20 subjects were studied, with five patients in each of the groups (nondiabetic- group 1, treatment naοve- group 2, treatment responder- group 3, and treatment nonresponder-group 4). Whole blood RNA extraction followed by labeling, amplification and hybridization was done, and microarray data analyzed. Genes were classified based on functional category and pathways. Results: The total number of genes upregulated among all three experimental groups was 5, whereas 105 genes were downregulated. There were no common genes upregulated between the responders and nonresponders. There was only one gene upregulated between the diabetic and diabetic responders posttreatment. There were 19 genes upregulated and 8 genes downregulated in the inflammatory pathway in group 2 versus group 1. There were no downregulated genes detected in vascular angiogenesis and transcription group. There were identical numbers of genes up- and downregulated in the inflammatory pathway. Seventeen genes were upreguated and 11 genes downregulated in receptor activity, which remained the predominant group in the group classification. Discussion: In summary, this study would provide an insight into the probable signaling mechanisms for disease pathogenesis as well as progression. This type of study eventually would aid in developing or improvising existing treatment modules with a rational approach towards personalized medicine, in future addressing the differential responses to treatment.
  2,822 345 1
Changing paradigms of anti-VEGF in the Indian scenario
P Mahesh Shanmugam
January 2014, 62(1):88-92
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126189  PMID:24492507
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) agents have revolutionized the treatment of retinal diseases. Use of anti-VEGF agents in the Indian Scenario present some unique challenges considering the absence of compounding pharmacies, poor penetrance of health insurance and limited affordability of the citizens of a developing economy. To study the changing paradigms of anti-VEGF use in the Indian scenario, all articles published by Indian authors, data from web-based surveys amongst Indian vitreo-retinal specialists were reviewed. In the paucity of compounding pharmacies in India, fractionation and injection techniques differ from those of developed countries. Frequent anti-VEGF monotherapy offers the best anatomical and visual results, but economics of scale do not allow the same in the Indian scenario, resulting in PRN dosing and combination of anti-VEGF with laser photocoagulation, being the commonly employed treatment protocols.
  2,092 359 1
Effects of melatonin on Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in lens of rats
Levent Tök, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Salih Doğan, Mehmet Cemal Kahya, Özlem Tök
January 2014, 62(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126166  PMID:24492496
Introduction: Melatonin has been considered a potent antioxidant that detoxifies a variety of reactive oxygen species in many pathophysiological states of eye. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens oxidant, antioxidant redox systems, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin on the lens injury induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two rats were used in the current study and they were randomly divided into four equal groups as follows: First and second groups were cage-control and sham-control rats. Rats in third group were exposed to Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) for duration of 60 min/day for 30 days. As in the third group, the fourth group was treated with melatonin. The one-hour exposure to irradiation in second, third and fourth took place at noon each day. Results: Lipid peroxidation levels in the lens were slightly higher in third (Wi-Fi) group than in cage and sham control groups although their concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by melatonin supplementation. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Wi-Fi group than in cage and sham control groups although GSH-Px (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione (P < 0.05) values were significantly higher in Wi-Fi + melatonin group than in Wi-Fi group. Conclusions: There are poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity.
  2,142 261 -
2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro
S Mansoor, N Gupta, P Falatoonzadeh, BD Kuppermann, MC Kenney
January 2014, 62(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126168  PMID:24492497
Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke) on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV) was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) was detected with a 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ΔΨm value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions.
  2,109 216 -
Scanning the macula for detecting glaucoma
Viquar U Begum, Ganesh B Jonnadula, Ravi K Yadav, Uday K Addepalli, Sirisha Senthil, Nikhil S Choudhari, Chandra S Garudadri, Harsha L Rao
January 2014, 62(1):82-87
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126188  PMID:24492506
Background: With the advent of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), there has been a renewed interest in macular region for detection of glaucoma. However, most macular SDOCT parameters currently are thickness parameters which evaluate thinning of the macular layers but do not quantify the extent of area over which the thinning has occurred. We therefore calculated a new macular parameter, "ganglion cell complex surface abnormality ratio (GCC SAR)" that represented the surface area over which the macular thickness was decreased. Purpose: To evaluate the ability of SAR in detecting perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Design: Retrospective image analysis. Materials and Methods: 68 eyes with perimetric glaucoma, 62 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 165 control eyes underwent GCC imaging with SDOCT. SAR was calculated as the ratio of the abnormal to total area on the GCC significance map. Statistical Analysis: Diagnostic ability of SAR in glaucoma was compared against that of the standard parameters generated by the SDOCT software using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Results: AUC of SAR (0.91) was statistically significantly better than that of GCC average thickness (0.86, P = 0.001) and GCC global loss volume (GLV; 0.88, P = 0.01) in differentiating perimetric glaucoma from control eyes. In differentiating preperimetric glaucoma from control eyes, AUC of SAR (0.72) was comparable to that of GCC average thickness (0.70, P > 0.05) and GLV (0.72, P > 0.05). Sensitivities at specificities of 80% and 95% of SAR were comparable (P > 0.05 for all comparisons) to that of GCC average thickness and GLV in diagnosing perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Conclusion: GCC SAR had a better ability to diagnose perimetric glaucoma compared to the SDOCT software provided global GCC parameters. However, in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma, the ability of SAR was similar to that of software provided global GCC parameters.
  1,956 319 -
Comparison of saccadic reaction time between normal and glaucoma using an eye movement perimeter
Deepmala Mazumdar, JJ M Pel, Manish Panday, Rashima Asokan, L Vijaya, B Shantha, Ronnie George, J van der Steen
January 2014, 62(1):55-59
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126182  PMID:24492502
Aim: To compare the saccadic reaction time (SRT) in both the central and peripheral visual field in normal and glaucomatous eyes using eye movement perimetery (EMP). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four normal and 25 glaucoma subjects underwent EMP and visual field testing on the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA) 24-2 program. The EMP is based on infrared tracking of the corneal reflex. Fifty-four test locations corresponding to the locations on the 24-2 HFA program were tested. SRTs at different eccentricities and for different severities of glaucoma were compared between normal and glaucoma subjects. Results: Mean SRT was calculated for both normal and glaucoma subjects. Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences in SRT's between normal and glaucoma subjects in all zones. Conclusion: SRT was prolonged in eyes with glaucoma across different eccentricities.
  1,816 246 -
Translating research into practice
Sundaram Natarajan
January 2014, 62(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126163  PMID:24492494
  1,168 283 -
Varied phenotypic presentations of Homocystinuria in two siblings
Subashini Kaliaperumal, K Praveen Kumar, Bhuvaneshwari
January 2014, 62(1):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126190  PMID:24492508
  997 167 1
Management of macular epiretinal membrane secondary to accidental globe perforation during retrobulbar anesthesia
A Abhijit Naik, S Aarti Agrawal, I Dhruvesh Navadiya, Suresh J Ramchandani
January 2014, 62(1):94-95
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126192  PMID:24492510
  989 158 1
Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for treatment-naive polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Jay Kumar Chhablani, Ritesh Narula, Raja Narayanan
January 2014, 62(1):97-97
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126197  PMID:24492512
  769 162 -
Post-perforation epimacular membrane: Do's and don'ts
Dhananjay Shukla
January 2014, 62(1):95-96
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126193  PMID:24492511
  564 143 -
Periorbital dirofilariasis
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January 2014, 62(1):94-94
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.126191  PMID:24492509
  571 124 -
Authors' reply
HI Onder, AC Kilic, M Kaya, S Bulur, E Onder, M Tunc
January 2014, 62(1):96-97
  511 113 -