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   2015| Dec  | Volume 63 | Issue 12  
    Online since February 10, 2016

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Characterization of the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye
Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed, Elmeya Hassan Safar
Dec 2015, 63(12):881-887
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176028  PMID:26862090
Ocular lesions are frequently associated with different parasitic infections. The classes of infection include protozoa, nematodes, cestodes, and ectoparasites. Ocular parasitic infections can manifest in any part of the eye; the disease manifestations are frequently characterized as either posterior or anterior eye disease. Parasite-induced lesions may be due to damage directly caused by the parasite, indirect pathology caused by toxic products or the immune response initiated by infectious parasitism. This review characterized the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions can reduce ocular morbidity. The method of the literature search was conducted on PubMed, Elsevier Scopus database, and Google Scholar with no limitation on the year of publication databases. It was limited to English articles published for ocular lesions in clinical studies and was focused on parasitic infections of the eye.
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Effect of lanosterol on human cataract nucleus
P Mahesh Shanmugam, Aditya Barigali, Jayant Kadaskar, Sandip Borgohain, Divaynsh Kailash Chandra Mishra, Rajesh Ramanjulu, CK Minija
Dec 2015, 63(12):888-890
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176040  PMID:26862091
Aim: To study the effect of lanosterol on age-related cataractous human lens nuclei. Materials and Methods: Forty age-related cataractous nuclei removed during manual small incision cataract surgery were obtained and randomly immersed in 25 mM lanosterol solution or in control solution and stored at room temperature for 6 days. Pre- and post-immersion photographs were graded by two masked observers and collated for the regression or progression of lens opacity. Results: Both lanosterol and control groups showed progression or no change in the lens opacity at the end of 6 days. Conclusion: Lanosterol 25 mM solution did not reverse opacification of human age-related cataractous nuclei.
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A Glimpse into this issue
Sundaram Natarajan
Dec 2015, 63(12):879-880
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176042  PMID:26862089
  883 3,778 -
Unilateral sequential papillophlebitis and central retinal artery occlusion in a young healthy patient
Gülizar Demirok, Mehmet Fatih Kocamaz, Yasemin Topalak, Ahmet Sengün, Berati Hasanreisoglu
Dec 2015, 63(12):921-924
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176029  PMID:26862099
A 23-year-old girl presented to the clinic with metamorphopsia and photopsia in her left eye. After detailed ophthalmic examination, central retinal vein occlusion with optic disc edema was detected in that eye. Three days after diagnosis, the patient returned to our clinic with visual acuity decrease. Central retinal artery occlusion sparing cilioretinal artery was detected. All the laboratory tests were normal except for heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (A1298C genotypes) and an indefinite Lyme disease seropositivity. Symptoms and visual disturbance recovered without any further treatment other than acetylsalicylic acid for prophylaxis.
  2,986 237 -
Choroidal thickness in diabetic patients of Indian ethnicity
Aditya Sudhalkar, Jay Kumar Chhablani, Amarnath Venkata, Rajiv Raman, P Srinivasa Rao, Ganesh Babu Jonnadula
Dec 2015, 63(12):912-916
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176024  PMID:26862096
Purpose: To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) change in various grades of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in comparison to age-matched healthy subjects. Methods: This prospective observational study included 227 eyes of 125 subjects with diabetes (study group: 58 females) and 197 eyes of 110 age-matched healthy subjects (control group: 66 females). Collected data included age, gender, duration of diabetes, glycemic control, comprehensive ocular examination, fundus photography, and CT measurement on spectral domain ocular coherence tomography using enhanced depth imaging. Results: Mean age in the study group was 57.0 ± 9.37 years (43–73 years). The mean age was 41.48 ± 5.43 years in the control group. Subjects with diabetes with (252.8 ± 55.6 microns) and without (261.71 ± 51.8 microns) retinopathy had significantly thinner choroids when compared to the control group (281.7 ± 47.7 microns; P = 0.032). Seventy-four of 227 eyes did not have any evidence of DR, 89 eyes had features of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 33 eyes had treatment naïve proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Thirty-one PDR eyes had received previous laser photocoagulation. Subjects with diabetes without retinopathy had a greater subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) than subjects with diabetes with retinopathy (P < 0.001). Eyes with PDR (243.9 ± 56.2 microns) had thinner SFCT than those with NPDR (238.98 ± 111.23 microns). There was no difference in the SFCT between treated (laser photocoagulation done; 251.784 ± 103.72 microns) and treatment naïve PDR (258.405 ± 89.47 microns, P = 0.23). Conclusions: Control eyes had greater SFCT compared to subjects with diabetes, with and without retinopathy. The thinning progressed with increasing severity of DR. Choroidal thinning may contribute to DR pathogenesis.
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Retrospective hospital-based analysis of age-related macular degeneration patterns in India: 5-year follow-up
Aditya Sudhalkar, Vaibhav Sethi, Priyanka Gogte, Sailaja Bondalapati, Mitali Khodani, Jay Kumar Chhablani
Dec 2015, 63(12):899-904
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176025  PMID:26862094
Purpose: To provide a detailed analysis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with a 5-year follow-up at a Tertiary Eye Care Center in India. Methods: In this retrospective institutional study, 408 eyes of 204 subjects (100 males) with a diagnosis of AMD with minimum 5-year follow-up were included. Data collected included demographics, details of the ocular exam, special investigations performed, treatment offered, complications, and systemic diseases, if any. Results: The median age was 74.24 ± 8.23 years. Median follow-up was 5.77 years. The visual acuity (VA) at baseline and last visit was 0.74 ± 0.12 (Snellen's equivalent 20/100) and 0.54 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (Snellen's equivalent 20/50; P = 0.032) in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM). The most common complaint was decreased vision (94.5%). AMD (any stage) was found to be bilateral in 93% of patients at baseline and 197 patients (96.56%) at 5 years. Seventeen eyes had active CNVM (12 of these were occult) at presentation. At baseline, 43 eyes had a disciform scar. Three hundred twenty-one eyes had dry AMD at baseline (geographic atrophy - 12 [3.7%] eyes). Five-year conversion rate into wet AMD and geographic atrophy was 2.87% and 3.12%. Median number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections administered per patient was 2.8 ± 1.2. CNVM bilaterality was low (7.5%). Conclusion: Patients with AMD in India presented later in the course of the disease. Bilateral advanced AMD and geographic atrophy were uncommon. Five-year conversion rate into wet AMD and geographic atrophy was 2.87% and 3.12%.
  1,726 277 -
Intraocular cytokines in retinal vein occlusion and its relation to the efficiency of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy
Andrey G Shchuko, Igor V Zlobin, Tatiana N Iureva, Alexander A Ostanin, Elena R Chernykh, Isay M Mikhalevich
Dec 2015, 63(12):905-911
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176031  PMID:26862095
Purpose: To analyze the change in the concentration of intraocular cytokines (ICs) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy (IVR), and to find the correlations of IC with clinical activity of RVO and efficiency of treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients aged 46–79 years old (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.5 years old) with RVO and macular edema (18 patients – with central RVO, 26 – with branch RVO) treated with IVR were included into the study. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were simultaneously measured in aqueous humor by flow fluorometry using Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine Panel, 27-Plex (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) at baseline and after the first IVR. Control group consisted of 20 age-matched patients. Results: The levels of 11 cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], receptor antagonist interleukin-1, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12r70, IL-13, IL-15, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) were significantly (P < 0.05) different compared to control and significantly (P < 0.05) changed after IVR both in central and branch RVO. The patients were divided into two groups: the first -"effective" and the second - "partially effective" therapy. The second group characterized by the higher concentrations of VEGF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and MCP-1 at baseline compared to the first group. Conclusion: The patients with RVO were characterized by the increased levels of VEGF and other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Aqueous concentration of cytokines were different in patients with central and branch RVO and significantly changed after IVR. Insufficient response to IVR was associated with activation of immune-inflammatory processes.
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: A case report
Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Swathi Kaliki, Dilip Kumar Mishra, Vijay Anand Reddy, Milind N Naik
Dec 2015, 63(12):927-929
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176026  PMID:26862101
A 40-year-old male presented with an orbital extension of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The orbital mass was seen protruding outward from the left palpebral fissure overhanging the lower eyelid, completely obscuring the globe and lower lid. The patient gave a history of excision biopsy, which was histopathologically diagnosed as ocular surface squamous neoplasia. He also gave a history of tumor recurrence, which gradually progressed to assume the form of the presently visible orbital mass. Computed tomography of the orbits showed the mass extending into the left orbit causing superior displacement of the globe. After a negative locoregional and systemic metastatic screening, neoadjuvant intravenous systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were initiated in an attempt to reduce the size of the tumor. Three cycles of tri-weekly chemotherapy resulted in a significant reduction of the orbital tumor size with the globe and the lower lid being visible, thus making a lid-sparing orbital exenteration possible. The patient subsequently underwent an orbital exenteration and at 6-month follow-up, the patient was free from local and regional disease. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used to reduce the size of invasive SCC with orbital extension, thereby permitting a lid-sparing orbital exenteration.
  1,473 257 -
A case of giant nodular posterior scleritis mimicking choroidal malignancy
Andrea T Liu, Fiona O Luk, Carmen K Chan
Dec 2015, 63(12):919-921
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176038  PMID:26862098
To report a case of giant nodular posterior scleritis mimicking a choroidal tumor. A 42-year-old lady with systemic hypertension presented with a 1-week history of unilateral visual loss, pain and redness in her left eye. Examination showed sectoral anterior episcleritis in her left eye as well as a dome-shaped choroidal mass at the inferior-temporal periphery, associated with retinal hemorrhages and subretinal fluid. Systemic evaluation and imaging of the choroidal mass were performed and could not rule out amelanotic choroidal melanoma. At the same time, she was prescribed a 2-week course of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for her sectoral anterior episcleritis. The choroidal mass was found to have resolved completely right before her scheduled fine needle biospy. Diagnosis of nodular posterior scleritis and a trial of oral NSAID can be considered in patients presenting with a choroidal mass before any invasive procedure.
  1,409 235 -
Comparison of incidence of ptosis after combined phacotrabeculectomy with mitomycin C and phacoemulsification
Victor Koh, Janina Tatsios, Paul T K Chew, Shantha Amrith
Dec 2015, 63(12):895-898
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176032  PMID:26862093
Objective: To compare the incidence of upper eyelid blepharoptosis after combined phacotrabeculectomy with mitomycin C and phacoemulsification surgeries and the relationship of bleb morphology to the incidence of ptosis. Design: Retrospective observation study. Participants: We included 46 patients after combined phacotrabeculectomy and 44 patients with phacoemulsification in the former group, and all eyes underwent a standardized two-site surgery with intra-operative mitomycin C. Materials and Methods: Postoperative ptosis was defined as a reduction of upper marginal reflex distance 2 mm in the operated eye compared to the fellow eye. Trabeculectomy bleb measurements were carried out using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (VisanteTM, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) which included bleb height and total area of the bleb. Results: There were 8 eyes (17.4%) and 5 eyes (11.4%) with postoperative ptosis in the phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification groups, respectively (P = 0.342). In multivariate regression analysis, reduced total bleb area was significantly associated with upper eyelid ptosis after adjusting for age, gender, and type of anesthesia. The trend seemed to show that increased bleb height was also associated with ptosis, but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Incidence of persistent ptosis after phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy and mitomycin C is similar compared to stand alone phacoemulsification surgery in a multiethnic Asian population. Bleb morphology may play an important role in postoperative ptosis development and should be considered in the evaluation of upper eyelid blepharoptosis.
  1,382 228 -
Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results
Atul Kumar, Varun Gogia, Ritu Nagpal, Sangeeta Roy, Shikha Gupta
Dec 2015, 63(12):924-926
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176030  PMID:26862100
The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD) at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001). Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.
  1,136 212 -
Effect of alpha-2-agonist premedication on intraocular pressure after selective laser trabeculoplasty
Julius T Oatts, Xiaofei Wang, Nils A Loewen
Dec 2015, 63(12):891-894
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176035  PMID:26862092
Aim: To determine the effect of alpha-2-agonist (AA) premedication (PM) on intraocular pressure (IOP) following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing 360° SLT at an institution with two prevalent practice patterns consisting of SLT performed with PM and without premedication (NPM) with AA. The association between pre- and post-operative IOP was evaluated using a linear regression model in 49 (59%) PM and 34 (41%) NPM eyes. Results: The prevalence of IOP elevations up to 5 mmHg 1 h postoperatively was similar in both groups, occurring in 18% of PM and in 15% of NPM. Elevations above 5 mmHg were seen in 4% of PM and 8% of NPM (P = 0.732). After correcting for age, gender, diagnosis, number of medications, and preoperative IOP, the presence or absence of AA PM had no significant association with any postoperative IOP (P > 0.5). Conclusion: The practice of using AAs before SLT and measuring IOP at 1 h has not been validated yet adds to expenses and workflow burden. Our retrospective study showed no significant correlation between PM and postoperative or longer-term IOP. IOP at 1 h should be measured in patients who cannot tolerate transient pressure elevations. Further studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.
  1,116 220 -
Combined occlusion of branch retinal artery and vein secondary to prepapillary arterial loops
Anuradha Dhawan, Dhananjay Shukla
Dec 2015, 63(12):917-918
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176027  PMID:26862097
A middle-aged diabetic and hypertensive man presented with diminished vision in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed prepapillary arterial loops, but with features of venous rather than arterial occlusion. Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography confirmed the presence of a branch retinal vein occlusion along with two branch retinal artery occlusions. The resultant macular edema responded well to intravitreal triamcinolone and laser photocoagulation though the visual improvement was moderate.
  1,014 163 -
Comment on: Alternate description of waveform: Pulsus bisferiens
Katja R Turner, Andrew J Otey
Dec 2015, 63(12):933-934
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176034  PMID:26862107
  987 107 -
Comment on: Acute visual loss with ophthalmoplegia after spinal surgery - Acid Base imbalance induced glaucoma in pediatric patients
Natarajapillai Venugopal
Dec 2015, 63(12):931-932
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176036  PMID:26862104
  881 120 -
Temperature control role of the choroid may affect choroidal thickness after dynamic exercise
Yildiray Yildirim, Abdullah Kaya, Taner Kar
Dec 2015, 63(12):930-930
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176033  PMID:26862102
  749 128 -
Comment on: Donate eyes, not patients!
Krishnan Panakanti Tandava
Dec 2015, 63(12):932-933
DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.176037  PMID:26862105
  644 112 -
Authors' response
Nihat Sayin, Necip Kara, Gokhan Pekel, Hasan Altinkaynak
Dec 2015, 63(12):930-931
  502 97 -
Authors' response
Bipasha Mukherjee, Mohammad Shahid Alam
Dec 2015, 63(12):932-932
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