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   2017| June  | Volume 65 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 23, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Orbital retinoblastoma: An update
Santosh G Honavar, Fairooz P Manjandavida, Vijay Anand P Reddy
June 2017, 65(6):435-442
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_352_15  PMID:28643706
Orbital extension is a major cause of death in children with retinoblastoma in the developing countries. Delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcome. Conventional treatment including primary orbital exenteration or chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone result in mortality as high as 70%. The recent understanding on the role of sequential multimodal therapy with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy, followed by appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy has helped dramatically improve life salvage.
  6,911 1,196 -
EDITORIAL
Ophthalmology residency training in India: Quo vadis?
Santosh G Honavar
June 2017, 65(6):427-428
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_502_17  PMID:28643703
  6,142 365 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Residency evaluation and adherence design study: Young ophthalmologists' perception of their residency programs – Clinical and surgical skills
Parikshit Gogate, Partha Biswas, Sundaram Natarajan, Dandapani Ramamurthy, Debashish Bhattacharya, Karl Golnik, Barun Kumar Nayak
June 2017, 65(6):452-460
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_643_16  PMID:28643708
Background: Residency training is the basis of good clinical and surgical practice. Purpose: The aim is to know the demographics, training experience, and perception of young ophthalmologists to improve the present residency programs in India. Setting: Young ophthalmologists trained in India. Methods: A survey was conducted by the Academic and Research Committee of the All India Ophthalmology Society, in 2014–2016 of young ophthalmologists (those trained between 2002 and 2012, with 2–10 years' postresidency experience) to gauge teaching of clinical and surgical skills during the postgraduate residency program. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Results: Of the 1005 respondents, 531 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Average age was 32.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 4). On a scale of 0–10, clinical skills teaching was graded as (mean, SD): Slit lamp examination (7.2, SD 2.8), indirect ophthalmoscopy (6.2, SD 3.3), gonioscopy (5.7, SD 3.4), perimetry (6.2, SD 3.2), optical coherence tomography (4.6, SD 4), and orthoptic evaluation (4.3, SD 3.1). The mean (SD) and median of surgeries performed independently was intracapsular cataract extraction 3.0 (14.9), 0; extracapsular cataract extraction 39.9 (53.2), 18; small incision cataract surgery 75.3 (64.4), 55; phacoemulsification 30 (52.6), 1; pterygium excision 31.5 (43.5), 15; dacryocystectomy 20.3 (38.1), 4; dacryocystorhinostomy 11.7 (26.2), 2; chalazion 46.4 (48.3), 30; trabeculectomies 4 (14.9), 0; strabismus correction 1.4 (4.9), 0; laser-assisted in situ Keratomileusis 1.5 (12.2), 0; retinal detachment 1.5 (12.5), 0; vitrectomy 3.0 (17.0), 0; keratoplasty 5.2 (17.8), 0; eyelid surgery 8.6 (18.9), 2 and ocular emergencies 41.7 (52.4), 20. Observed and assisted surgeries were more common. However, the range of grading was 0–10 in all categories. Conclusion: Residency training in India varies considerably from program to program. Standardization is needed to assure all graduates are competent and render consistent quality of service.
  6,060 306 -
SPECIAL EDITORIAL
Publication ethics
Sabyasachi Sengupta, Santosh G Honavar
June 2017, 65(6):429-432
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_483_17  PMID:28643704
  4,775 1,048 -
COMMUNITY EYE CARE
Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh
Veer Singh, K P S Malik, VK Malik, Kirti Jain
June 2017, 65(6):500-508
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_676_15  PMID:28643716
Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females) were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural). Refractive error (17.36%) was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%), blepharitis (2.11%), Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%), allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%), bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%), amblyopia (0.41%), stye (0.31%) and squint (0.27%). There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05%) in the rural (3.03%) as compared to the urban sector (1.15%). The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35%) of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load.
  3,650 1,019 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pre-Descemet's endothelial keratoplasty
Priya Narang, Amar Agarwal
June 2017, 65(6):443-451
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_324_17  PMID:28643707
Endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has supplanted the penetrating keratoplasty procedure for corneal endothelial disorders. A review of literature on pre-descemet's EK, that is, a latest iterant in EK is described along with our experiences.
  3,042 422 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Ophthalmology postgraduate training in India: Stirring up a hornet's nest
Amod Gupta
June 2017, 65(6):433-434
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_427_17  PMID:28643705
  2,928 356 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Postoperative posterior capsular striae and the posterior capsular opacification in patients implanted with two types of intraocular lens material
Rajesh Subhash Joshi
June 2017, 65(6):466-471
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_344_16  PMID:28643710
Aim: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative posterior capsular striae (PCS) and its influence on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in patients implanted with two types of lens material. Setting: Tertiary eye care center in central rural India. Study Design: A prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Materials and Methods: The study included 1247 patients having age-related cataract scheduled for removal by phacoemulsification technique and implantation of hydrophilic or hydrophobic intraocular lens (IOL). Demographic profile, nuclear grading, axial length, and IOL power were noted. Details of PCS were noted on the 1st postoperative day in patients with clear cornea. Postoperative follow-up was ensured to study the status of PCS and development of PCO. Results: The overall incidence of PCS was 19.8% (247 out of 1247 eyes). Out of 1247 patients, 641 patients (51.4%) had hydrophilic IOL implantation and 201 eyes had PCS (31.4%) and 606 patients (48.6%) had hydrophobic IOL implantation and 46 eyes had PCS (7.6%), P = 0.04. Three and more striae were seen in 119 eyes (119/641, 18.6%) in hydrophilic group and 4 eyes (4/606, 0.66%) in hydrophobic group. Sixty-two eyes (62/201, 30.9%) in hydrophilic group with multiple PCS were reported with persistent striae after 6 months of surgery. Two eyes in hydrophobic group had persistent striae even after 3 years of follow-up. Evaluation of PCO score of the hydrophilic group was 0.6 whereas of the hydrophobic group was 0.1 (P = 0.04). Ten patients of the hydrophilic group only required neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (ND: YAG) laser capsulotomy. Conclusion: The incidence of PCS was higher in hydrophilic than hydrophobic IOLs. Multiple PCS persisting in patients beyond 6 months after operation should be followed up for early development of PCO, particularly in patients implanted with hydrophilic IOL.
  2,435 329 -
Glued intraocular lens implantation for eyes with inadequate capsular support: Analysis of the postoperative visual outcome
Sujatha Mohan, Bina John, Mohan Rajan, Harsha Malkani, SV Nagalekshmi, Siddhartha Singh
June 2017, 65(6):472-476
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_375_16  PMID:28643711
Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the postoperative visual outcomes of fibrin glue-assisted, suture-less posterior chamber (PC) intraocular lens (IOL) implantation technique in eyes with inadequate capsule support at a tertiary eye care hospital in South India. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective, nonrandomized case series. Patients and Methods: This study analyzes 94 eyes which underwent PC-IOL implantation by fibrin glue-assisted, suture-less technique. All patients who had IOL implants by the fibrin glue-assisted PC-IOL technique from August 2009 to January 2014 were included in the study. Intra- and post-operative complications were analyzed. The postoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was evaluated and recorded at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.1 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) using two sample paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: A total of 94 eyes of 92 patients that underwent glued IOL implantation over a period of 5 years were analyzed. Out of 94 eyes, 77 eyes (84.6%) maintained or improved on their preoperative BSCVA (P = 0.012). Conclusion: We conclude that glued IOL implantation is a feasible option in rehabilitating patients with aphakia without adequate capsular support.
  2,217 337 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Alkaptonuria: A case report
Nirupama Damarla, Prathima Linga, Mallika Goyal, Sanjay Reddy Tadisina, G Satyanarayana Reddy, Hymavathi Bommisetti
June 2017, 65(6):518-521
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_337_16  PMID:28643719
Alkaptonuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance with a mutation in homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. It results in accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues (ochronosis). Most common ocular manifestations are bluish-black discoloration of the conjunctiva, cornea, and sclera. In this case report, a 39-year-old Indian male patient with additional ocular features in the retina is described.
  2,238 254 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of central corneal thickness with four noncontact devices: An agreement analysis of swept-source technology
Erhan Ozyol, Pelin Özyol
June 2017, 65(6):461-465
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_618_16  PMID:28643709
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of four noncontact devices in healthy eyes. Materials and Methods: In a sample of 45 healthy controls, CCT was measured using an optical biometer (IOLMaster 700) based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), high-resolution rotating Scheimpflug camera system (Pentacam HR), spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) device with an anterior segment module (Spectralis), and noncontact pachymetry (NCP) device (Topcon TRK-2P). Agreement among the devices was analyzed using mean differences (i.e., bias) and Bland–Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results: Mean CCT measurements were 537.5 ± 47.5 μm for SS-OCT optical biometer, 532.3 ± 43.8 μm for Scheimpflug system, 521.3 ± 44.7 μm for SD-OCT device, and 518.0 ± 43.1 μm for NCP (P < 0.001). The SD-OCT device and NCP showed the closest agreement, with a bias of 2.6 μm (95% LoA, −3.6–8.8 μm), whereas the SS-OCT optical biometer and NCP showed the least agreement, with a bias of 18.7 μm (95% LoA, −2.1–39.5 μm). Bias was 16.1 μm (95% LoA, −3.1–35.3 μm) for SS-OCT optical biometer and SD-OCT, 5.1 μm (95% LoA, −6.8–17.0 μm) for SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system, 10.9 μm (95% LoA, −15.1–36.9 μm) for SD-OCT device and Scheimpflug system, and 13.6 μm (95% LoA, −5–32.2 μm) for Scheimpflug system and NCP. Conclusions: SS-OCT optical biometer overestimates CCT measurements compared to Scheimpflug system, SD-OCT device, and NCP. Given mean differences and range variations in CCT measurements between devices, SS-OCT optical biometer and Scheimpflug system are interchangeable as are SD-OCT and NCP.
  1,762 319 -
PHOTO ESSAY
A rare case of idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia associated with central serous chorioretinopathy
Nicey Roy Thomas, Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Kalpita Das
June 2017, 65(6):516-517
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_167_17  PMID:28643718
  1,852 183 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration
Mustafa Gok, V Levent Karabaş, Mehmet S Aslan, Özgür Kara, Süleyman Karaman, Fatih Yenihayat
June 2017, 65(6):482-487
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_129_16  PMID:28643713
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH) due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA) using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA) and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01). There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test). There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test). There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test). The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm) was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test). Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.
  1,707 260 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Surgical treatment of Metarhizium anisopliae sclerokeratitis and endophthalmitis
Dan Derhy, Arnaud Sauer, Marcela Sabou, Jonathan Letsch, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru, Tristan Bourcier
June 2017, 65(6):523-526
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_461_16  PMID:28643721
A 55-year-old nurse was referred with a 5-month history of right eye corneal abscess. The initial injury occurred when doing lawn work. The infection worsened despite multiple antibiotic, antiviral, and steroid treatments. Visual acuity was limited to hand motion. On examination, there was keratitis, ocular hypertension, and a secondary cataract. Corneal scrapings grew a filamentous fungus, identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (MA). Despite intensive antifungal treatment with topical, intravitreous, and systemic voriconazole, purulent corneal melting and scleritis with endophthalmitis rapidly appeared. An emergency surgical procedure including sclerocorneal transplantation, cataract surgery, a pars plana vitrectomy using temporary keratoprosthesis, and scleral crosslinking was necessary. One year after the surgery, there was no recurrence of infection. Functional outcome remained very poor. This is the first case of sclerokeratitis and endophthalmitis caused by MA ever reported. The infection was successfully treated with an aggressive combination of medical and surgical treatments.
  1,761 166 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of macular pigment optical density in patients with dry and wet age-related macular degeneration
Ayhan Ozyurt, Nilufer Kocak, Pınar Akan, Ozlem Gursoy Calan, Taylan Ozturk, Mahmut Kaya, Eyup Karahan, Suleyman Kaynak
June 2017, 65(6):477-481
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_365_16  PMID:28643712
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), dry AMD, and also in healthy controls. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, and the study design was a prospective study. Patients and Methods: Forty-eight patients with wet AMD, 51 patients with dry AMD, and 50 controls were included in the study. All patients were naive to both previous lutein or zeaxanthin administration and any previous intravitreal injections. Fundus reflectance (VISUCAM 500, reflectance of a single 460 nm wavelength) was used to measure the MPOD levels. Three groups were compared regarding age, gender, serum lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations as well as MPOD levels. Results: Serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels were significantly higher in control group when compared with wet AMD (Group 1) and dry AMD (Group 2) (P = 0.001 and P< 0.001, respectively). Mean MPOD was found to be similar in all of the three study subgroups (P = 0.630). However, maximum MPOD was significantly higher in control group when compared with Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.003). There was no correlation between serum lutein or zeaxanthin concentrations and mean MPOD levels (P = 0.815, r = 0.014 and P = 0.461, r = 0.043, respectively), but there was a weak correlation between serum zeaxanthin concentration and maximum MPOD level (P = 0.042, r = 0.124). Maximum MPOD level was found to be correlated with the level of AMD (Group 1, 2, and 3; r = 0.184, P = 0.041). Conclusion: Maximum MPOD level was found to be lower in patients with AMD when compared with control cases. Mean MPOD and maximum MPOD levels were similar in wet and dry AMD Groups. These results can be applied clinically keeping in mind that MPOD measurements with one wavelength reflectometry may not be completely reliable.
  1,628 277 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Management of a case of Candida albicans endogenous endophthalmitis with intravitreal caspofungin
Harshali Manish Yadav, Boben Thomas, Cherian Thampy, Tandava Krishnan Panaknti
June 2017, 65(6):529-531
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_781_16  PMID:28643723
We report a case of Candida albicans endogenous endophthalmitis treated with intravitreal caspofungin. The patient was a known case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia on chemotherapy and presented to us with features suggestive of endogenous endophthalmitis. He was treated initially with intravenous (IV) caspofungin and intravitreal amphotericin B. Patients condition worsened after IV caspofungin was replaced by amphotericin B necessitating a core vitrectomy. The patient was given the option of off-label caspofungin intravitreal injection for which the patient consented. There was a gradual improvement in the clinical picture. The situation worsened after the injections were stopped necessitating a revitrectomy. The study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of intravitreal caspofungin for the first time in human eyes.
  1,485 232 -
Inferior subconjunctival dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens after blunt trauma
Amit Mohan, Navjot Kaur, Vinod Sharma
June 2017, 65(6):521-523
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_359_16  PMID:28643720
Traumatic subconjunctival dislocation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) is a rare and emergency condition. Here, we report an interesting variation of rare case of inferior subconjuctival dislocation of PCIOL in a 75-year-old female patient following blunt trauma to her right eye with cow's head. All the previous literature with subconjuctival dislocation of PCIOL has reported the superior dislocation of intraocular lens. Inferior subconjunctival dislocation has never been reported in previous literature.
  1,421 166 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of vitrectomized with nonvitrectomized eyes after subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide to treat diabetic macular edema: Retrospective comparative Analysis of an interventional case series
Kang Yeun Pak, Beom Seok Choi, Sung Who Park, Ik Soo Byon, Ji Eun Lee
June 2017, 65(6):488-492
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_627_16  PMID:28643714
Purpose: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is an alternative option for diabetic macular edema thanks to its cost-benefit ratio and unique delivery route. We performed this study to compare vitrectomized with nonvitrectomized eyes treated with subtenon TA injection for diabetic macular edema. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had undergone subtenon TA injection for diabetic macular edema treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized. Visual acuity and central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were analyzed before injection, at 1 and 3 months after injection. Results: Visual acuity in vitrectomized group improved significantly at 1 month (P = 0.002), but this improvement regressed after 3 months. In the nonvitrectomized group, visual acuity did not improve significantly after 1 month, but it did after 3 months (P = 0.019). The CSMT decreased significantly in both groups at 1 and 3 months (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups at either 1 or 3 months with regard to either visual improvement or change in CSMT. Conclusion: Subtenon TA injection could be an alternative treatment option for diabetic macular edema, both in vitrectomized and in nonvitrectomized eyes. TA seems to take effect earlier and decay faster in vitrectomized eyes.
  1,192 242 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Silodosin-associated intraoperative floppy iris syndrome
Samrat Chatterjee, Deepshikha Agrawal
June 2017, 65(6):538-539
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_704_16  PMID:28643727
  1,212 192 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Microstructure changes of occipital white matter are responsible for visual problems in the 3–4-year-old very low birth weight children
Anna Lesniak, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Małgorzata Klimek, Paulina Karcz, Anna Kubatko-Zielińska, Magdalena Nitecka, Grażyna Dutkowska, Bożena Romanowska-Dixon, Przemko Kwinta
June 2017, 65(6):493-499
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_679_16  PMID:28643715
Purpose: The main aim of the study was to evaluate which factors affect the long-time visual function in preterm children, whether it is prematurity or retinopathy of prematurity or perhaps disturbances in the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight children with mean birth weight 1016 g (range 520–1500 g) were evaluated at mean age 48 months (range 42–54 months). All children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP). The MRI evaluation included diffusion tensor imaging and fractional anisotropy (FA), and colored orientation maps were calculated for each subject. Based on the results of the VEP evaluation, children were divided into two groups: A-abnormal results of VEP (n = 16) and B-normal VEP results (comparison group, n = 42). Results: FA values of inferior left and right occipital white matter (OWM) were lower in the group of children with abnormal VEP compared to the comparison group (0.34 ± 0.06 vs. 0.38 ± 0.06; P = 0.047; 0.31 ± 0.04 vs. 0.36 ± 0.06; P = 0.007, respectively). Furthermore, there were correlations between the latency (r = −0.35; P = 0.01) and amplitude (r = 0.31; P = 0.02) and FA in OWM. Children with abnormal VEP had lower DTVP scores as compared with children with normal VEP results (88 ± 18 vs. 95 ± 16 points, P = 0.048). Finally, a multivariate logistic regression revealed that FA of the inferior OWM was the only independent risk factor for the abnormal VEP (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Visual perception, VEPs, and white matter microstructural abnormalities in very low birth weight children at the age of 3–4 are significantly correlated.
  1,201 177 -
COMMUNITY EYE CARE
Spectacles use in a rural population in the state of Telangana in South India
Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Eswararao Kunuku, Gullapalli N Rao
June 2017, 65(6):509-515
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_324_16  PMID:28643717
Context: Uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment. Aims: To assess the prevalence and patterns of spectacles use among those aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Telangana. Settings and Design: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, in which 6150 people were enumerated from 123 clusters in the two districts of Telangana state (Adilabad and Mahbubnagar) using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology. Materials and Methods: Participants were visited in their households and presenting visual acuity (VA) was assessed in all cases followed by pinhole VA if presenting VA was worse than 6/12. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the current and previous spectacles use, type of spectacles, and details of the spectacles provider. Statistical Analysis Used: Stata statistical software version 12. Results: Among 5881 participants examined, 53.7% were women, and 82% had no formal education. The prevalence of current spectacles use was 28.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.6–30.0). On applying multiple logistic regression analysis, spectacles use was significantly associated with older age groups, female gender, higher levels of education, and residing in Adilabad district. Bifocals were the most commonly used type of spectacles (56.3%), and private eye clinics (70.3%) were the leading service providers. The spectacles coverage was 53.6%. Conclusions: We reported on prevalence and patterns of spectacles use using a large representative sample and a high response rate. More than half of those who may benefit from spectacles were using them, suggestive of a reasonable primary eye care coverage in the two districts studied.
  1,164 198 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Successful surgical management of bilateral epiretinal membrane in a child with only café-au-lait spots
Swetha Sara Philip, Thomas Kuriakose, Geeta Chacko
June 2017, 65(6):531-533
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_649_16  PMID:28643724
A 6-year-old boy diagnosed as anisometropic amblyopia, with only café-au-lait spots and a family history of neurofibromatosis, presented with decrease in vision in the both eyes. Dilated fundus examination showed epiretinal membrane in both eyes over the macula. He underwent successful surgical management of the epiretinal membrane.
  1,199 141 -
Exotropia in a pediatric patient with rhabdomyolysis caused by an insect sting
Won Jae Kim, Saeyoon Kim, Myung Mi Kim
June 2017, 65(6):535-537
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_600_16  PMID:28643726
Various ocular and systemic reactions have been associated with insect sting. However, insect stings have been rarely reported to cause exotropia and diplopia. We encountered exotropia in a 6-year-old child with rhabdomyolysis of the left lower extremities caused by an insect sting. Exotropia and diplopia developed within 1 day after the sting and improved completely 1 week after the onset of symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for the development of exotropia in patients with insect stings, which requires careful follow-up.
  1,169 136 -
A 7-year-old female child of incontinentia pigmenti presenting with vitreous hemorrhage
Sung-Ying Huang, Lee-Jen Chen, Sheng-Chun Chiu
June 2017, 65(6):533-535
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_560_16  PMID:28643725
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare disease with multisystemic anomalies, which commonly presents just after birth. Here, we report a rare case of IP patient with vitreous hemorrhage in school-age children. Therefore, physicians have to be alert and evaluate IP patients at all ages. Regular ophthalmic follow-up is necessary, and fluorescein angiography should be performed if peripheral ischemia or neovascularization is suspected. The effect of peripheral laser ablation on peripheral retinal nonperfusion is not clear and merits further study.
  1,147 154 -
Endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans Var. Gattii mimicking choroidal tumor: From positron-emission tomography/computed tomography to histopathology
Chun-Ju Lin, Wen-Lu Chen, Jane-Ming Lin, Peng-Tai Tien, Yi-Yu Tsai
June 2017, 65(6):526-528
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_543_16  PMID:28643722
A 60-year-old immunocompetent female with pneumonia history about 10 years ago suffered from blurred vision overall survival for 3 weeks. Common cold with headache and unintentional body weight loss was also noted recently. Choroidal detachment simulating choroidal tumor was observed in the temporal quadrant. The 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) scan showed focal, mild to moderate FDG uptake in the left lateral orbit, and an enhanced lesion was seen on the recent CT scan. The suspicious choroidal tumor became larger in a week. Phacoemulsification, vitrectomy, and retinal biopsies were performed. Histochemical study of the retinal specimens established the diagnosis of endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture yielded Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Systemic and topical voriconazole eliminated the infection. In the literature, endogenous endophthalmitis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii has not been reported in detail. The key to successful management lies in early diagnosis. If clinical improvement could not be achieved after conventional management and imaging studies have failed to yield a definite diagnosis, retinal biopsy can be considered.
  1,085 164 -