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   2020| August  | Volume 68 | Issue 8  
    Online since July 24, 2020

 
 
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COMMENTARY
Commentary: COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown: The cascading effect
Rinky Agarwal, Namrata Sharma
August 2020, 68(8):1545-1545
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2100_20  PMID:32709771
  10,511 204 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Digital eye strain in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: An emerging public health threat
Sudip Bhattacharya, Sheikh Mohd Saleem, Amarjeet Singh
August 2020, 68(8):1709-1710
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1782_20  PMID:32709833
  6,143 699 -
Managing the myopia epidemic and digital eye strain post COVID-19 pandemic – What eye care practitioners need to know and implement?
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Aparna Gopalakrishnan, Viswanathan Sivaraman, Meenakshi Swaminathan
August 2020, 68(8):1710-1712
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2147_20  PMID:32709834
  5,369 686 -
PREFERRED PRACTICE
COVID-19 guidelines for optometry and optical services post-lockdown
Snehal Turakhia, Yeshwant Saoji, Aditya Goyal, Prema Chande, Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Nagaraju Konda, Nilesh Thite, Deepak K Bagga, Jayanta Bhattacharjee, Rajeev Prasad, Sanjay Mishra, Lakshmi Shinde
August 2020, 68(8):1533-1539
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1827_20  PMID:32709769
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption in everyone's lives globally. Optometrists, being primary health care professionals are at a higher risk of infection in their practices during these testing times. Optometrists and optical store owners need practically implementable guidelines as lockdown gets lifted in various parts of our country. As these practices gear up to provide eye examination and vision correction to people, they need to take necessary precautions to avoid any cross contaminations. Optometry Council of India guidelines were circulated among optometry and optical associations and among experts in various optometry specialty. A consensus among various bodies were arrived. These guidelines provide recommendation for optical and optometry practices.
  4,005 399 -
EDITORIAL
Medical management of thyroid eye disease – A paradigm shift
Santosh G Honavar
August 2020, 68(8):1515-1518
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2386_20  PMID:32709765
  2,934 791 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical profile and prevalence of conjunctivitis in mild COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital: A retrospective cross-sectional study
K Sindhuja, Neiwete Lomi, Mohamed I Asif, Radhika Tandon
August 2020, 68(8):1546-1550
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1319_20  PMID:32709772
Purpose: To find the clinical profile and prevalence of conjunctivitis and other ocular manifestations in mild COVID-19 positive patients in a nodal COVID-19 hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional, single-center study conducted in 127 mild cases of COVID-19 positive patients admitted between 27th March and 19th April 2020 in a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital in north India. From the hospital records, demographic data is collected. Ocular history and ocular examinations were done by face-to-face survey during ward rounds. Results: A total of 127 patients were included in the study with a median age of 38.8 years. Forty-eight (37.80%) patients had upper respiratory tract symptoms, 20 (15.75%) patients had systemic illness, 18 (14.17%) patients were using spectacles, and 50 (39.37%) patients had history of hand-eye contact. Out of 12 (9.45%) patients who had ocular complaints, 11 (8.66%) had ocular manifestation after admission. Among 11 patients, eight (6.29%) had conjunctival congestion. Three (3/8) patients had developed conjunctival congestion even before the manifestation of definite COVID-19 symptoms. Five patients (5/8) patients had no other associated ocular symptoms other than congestion. Six patients (6/8) had symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. Conclusion: Mild conjunctivitis manifesting as conjunctival congestion is common and is one of the major ocular manifestations in COVID-19 positive patients even with milder disease.
  3,119 511 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown on patient care at a tertiary-care ophthalmology institute
Naresh Babu, Piyush Kohli, Chitaranjan Mishra, Sagnik Sen, Dhipak Arthur, Deepesh Chhablani, Girish Baliga, Kim Ramasamy
August 2020, 68(8):1540-1544
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1673_20  PMID:32709770
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown on patient care at a tertiary-care ophthalmology institute. Methods: Records of all the patients who presented from March 25th to May 3rd, 2020 were scanned to evaluate the details regarding the presenting complaints, diagnosis, advised treatment and surgical interventions. Results: The number of outpatient department visits, retinal laser procedures, intravitreal injections and cataract surgeries during this lockdown decreased by 96.5%, 96.5%, 98.7% and 99.7% respectively compared from the corresponding time last year. Around 38.8% patients could be triaged as non-emergency cases based on history alone while 59.5% patients could be triaged as non-emergency cases after examination. Only eighty-four patients opted for video-consultation from April 15th to May 3rd, 2020. Nine patients presented with perforated corneal ulcer, but could not undergo penetrating keratoplasty due to the lack to available donor corneal tissue. One of these patients had to undergo evisceration due to disease progression. Two patients with open globe injury presented late after trauma and had to undergo enucleation. Around 9% patients could not undergo the advised urgent procedure due to logistical issues related to the lockdown. Conclusion: A significant number of patients could not get adequate treatment during the lockdown period. Hospitals need to build capacity to cater to the expected patient surge post-COVID-19-era, especially those requiring immediate in-person attention. A large number of patients can be classified as non-emergency cases. These patients need to be encouraged to follow-up via video-consultation to carve adequate in-person time for the high-risk patients.
  3,058 562 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Motherhood: What every ophthalmologist needs to know
Arvind K Morya, Sonalika Gogia, Arushi Gupta, Sujeet Prakash, Kanchan Solanki, Anushree D Naidu
August 2020, 68(8):1526-1532
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2033_19  PMID:32709768
The aim of this review article is to summarize the available literature on physiologic and pathologic ocular changes during pregnancy and the effect of diseases in pregnancy. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library in English. In addition, the cited references in the published articles were manually reviewed for the relevant results. Pregnancy encompasses a multitude of changes in all body systems, including the visual system of the female. The changes can be physiological, i.e., changes occurring in the lids and adnexa, cornea, conjunctiva, changes in tear film composition and intraocular pressure, retina, choroid, and visual field. Pathological changes in a pregnant woman's eye include changes related to preeclampsia and eclampsia, central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal artery or vein occlusions, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Preexisting diseases like diabetic retinopathy, Graves' disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, various inflammatory conditions can undergo changes in their course during pregnancy. Ophthalmic medications can have an effect on both mother and the baby and hence should be used cautiously. In addition, intrauterine infections play a major role in causing inflammation in the eye of the baby. Hence, vaccination of the mother prior to pregnancy plays an important role in preventing intrauterine infections in the neonate. A regular eye examination in the perinatal period plays a vital role in recognizing ophthalmic pathologies which might require a prompt medical intervention. Pathological ocular diseases should be discriminated from physiologic changes to establish an individualized treatment or preventive plan. This approach to ocular benefits of treatment to the mother should always weigh against the potential harm to the fetus.
  2,563 590 -
Accommodative anomalies in children
Yogesh Shukla
August 2020, 68(8):1520-1525
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1973_18  PMID:32709767
Asthenopic and related symptoms are a major problem in school-going children. With the inception of computers and other gadgets for near work, the unseen problems arising out of constant and continuous near work, are on the rise. Parents wander from pillar to post, seeking respite from their child's constant complaints from near work; but despite best spectacle correction and avoidance of excessive near work, the complaints continue. Studies have shown that the majority of these problems arise from defects in accommodation, even in a young child. Therefore, various aspects of accommodation deficiencies have to be studied clinically, detected, and treated to ameliorate the symptoms.
  2,538 543 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Clinical profile of thyroid eye disease and factors predictive of disease severity
Alankrita Muralidhar, Sima Das, Sweety Tiple
August 2020, 68(8):1629-1634
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_104_20  PMID:32709794
Purpose: To describe the clinical features of thyroid eye disease (TED) in patients presenting at a tertiary eye care centre in North India and to identify factors predictive of severe disease. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study involved clinical evaluation of all patients with TED who presented at the oculoplastic clinic based on the ITEDS VISA proforma. Risk factors for the severe disease were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 106 patients (50 males, 56 females; mean age 41.30 ± 14.76 years) were identified during the study period, 46.23% hyperthyroid, 33.96% hypothyroid and 19.81% euthyroid. The proportion of the patients with hypothyroid was higher as compared with prior studies and most patients with hypothyroid had the mild disease (63.89%). Orbitopathy symptoms were the presenting feature leading to the diagnosis of systemic thyroid abnormality in 25% of the patients with hypothyroid and 59.18% of the patients with hyperthyroid, respectively (P < 0.05). Eyelid and orbitopathy signs were more common in the patients with hyperthyroid (51.2% and 87.7%) as compared with hypothyroid where the commonest presenting symptoms were related to dry eye (50.1%). Active disease was seen in 22.6% of the patients. Mild, moderate to severe and sight-threatening disease was seen in 54.7%, 37.7% and 7.5%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, hyperthyroid status and activity was associated with severe disease. Smoking was not associated with activity or severity. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the gender profile of the patients with TED in this cohort. The patients with hypothyroid have a milder disease compared to the patients with hyperthyroid, and dry eye symptoms are the commonest presenting symptoms in hypothyroid subjects. Hyperthyroidism and activity were associated with severe and sight-threatening disease.
  1,878 298 -
CASE REPORTS
Elevated episcleral venous pressure and its implications: A case of Radius–Maumenee syndrome
S Usha Tejaswini, Priya Sivakumar, Swati Upadhyaya, Rengaraj Venkatesh
August 2020, 68(8):1683-1685
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2407_19  PMID:32709823
We report a rare case of dilated episcleral veins with unilateral secondary open-angle glaucoma. Our case highlights the possible differentials to be considered and the systematic investigations to be done while ruling out the etiologies. Radius–Maumenee syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. Raised IOP can remain refractory to the medical therapy and conventional trabeculectomy carries higher risk of complications. Here, we discuss the choice of surgical treatment and its implications on management of this secondary open-angle glaucoma.
  1,975 138 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
A simple solution to prevent microscope eyepiece fogging and spectacle fogging in COVID-19 era
Bharat Gurnani, Kirandeep Kaur, Kapil Mishra, Rengaraj Venkatesh
August 2020, 68(8):1712-1713
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1500_20  PMID:32709835
  1,637 287 -
CASE REPORTS
Late manifestation of follicular conjunctivitis in ventilated patient following COVID-19 positive severe pneumonia
Bhagabat Nayak, Chanchal Poddar, Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Swagata Tripathy, Baijayantimala Mishra
August 2020, 68(8):1675-1677
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1682_20  PMID:32709820
A 65-year-old known diabetic, hypertensive, and asthmatic patient was admitted for suspected coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection following complaints of breathlessness. He tested positive for COVID-19 and was put on ventilation. He developed severe follicular conjunctivitis of the right eye while on a ventilator, which was treated conservatively. The resolution of ocular signs was noted over 2 weeks without any complications. This case highlights the timeline of events and discusses the late ophthalmic manifestations in patients with COVID-19 infection.
  1,465 243 -
ONE MINUTE OPHTHALMOLOGY
The veiled monster
Md Shahid Alam, Subham Sinha Roy, Vikas Khetan
August 2020, 68(8):1519-1519
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_472_20  PMID:32709766
  1,298 356 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation of axial length and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography in myopes
Sonika Porwal, Suneetha Nithyanandam, Mary Joseph, Andrew K Vasnaik
August 2020, 68(8):1584-1586
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1778_19  PMID:32709782
Purpose: To evaluate the RNFL thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and correlate it with the axial length and refractive error in myopes. Methods: Patients with myopia −1D to −10D attending ophthalmology OPD at a tertiary hospital from October 2013 to April 2015 for evaluation underwent ophthalmic examination including refraction, axial length, and OCT RNFL thickness measurements. The patients were divided into two groups; group A included patients with AL ≤24 mm and group B AL >24 mm. Results: The study included 100 eyes with myopia ranging from −1D to −10D. The mean (±SD) age was 26.87 (±5.93) years with a range of 21–48 years and male: female ratio of 2:3. There was a statistically significant difference in the average peripapillary RNFL thickness between the two axial length groups (P = 0.01); RNFL thickness in group A being 91.40 (±10.17) and group B 86.06 (±10.09); and in the average RNFL thickness between the 3 degrees of myopia groups, with higher myopic group having thinner RNFL (P = 0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant decrease in RNFL thickness with an increase in the grade of myopia and axial length. This polar RNFL thinning could be wrongly attributed to glaucomatous change. We recommend careful interpretation of RNFL data in myopes with axial length >24 mm, when applying the current OCT nomograms.
  1,277 237 -
Visual morbidity in thyroid eye disease in Asian Indian patients
Roshmi Gupta, Rwituja Thomas, Fatema Almukhtar, Anjali Kiran
August 2020, 68(8):1622-1627
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2284_19  PMID:32709792
Purpose: To describe visual morbidity in thyroid orbitopathy in Asian Indians and the factors influencing its onset. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with thyroid related orbitopathy seen between May 2014 and April 2019. Three hundred and one patients were included in the study. Relevant history, clinical findings, investigations, and treatment were documented. Results: Nineteen percent of patients had at least 1 visual morbidity feature such as compressive optic neuropathy, exposure keratopathy or diplopia, requiring intravenous glucocorticoid. Male gender, older age, and diabetes were the significant risk factors for high visual morbidity (all P < 0.05). Systemic thyroid status, degree of proptosis, and duration of disease were not significant. Average dose of intravenous glucocorticoid needed was 3.8 g; 24 (7.9%) patients required orbital decompression, and 13 (4.3%) needed eyelid surgery. At the last follow-up, 97% of patients had vision 6/12 or better in both eyes. Conclusion: There is significant visual morbidity found in Indian patients with TED, even with moderate proptosis and systemic control of thyroid status. This is the first set of data on the subject.
  1,340 161 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Innovative application of ultraviolet rays and hydrogen peroxide vapor for decontamination of respirators during COVID-19 pandemic- An experience from a tertiary eye care hospital
Bharat Gurnani, Rengaraj Venkatesh, Kirandeep Kaur, Rajesh Vedachalam, Joseph Gubert
August 2020, 68(8):1714-1715
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2160_20  PMID:32709836
  1,296 202 -
The mask, the aerosol, and the pandemic: The good, the bad, and the ugly
Rajat D Maheshwari
August 2020, 68(8):1704-1706
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1964_20  PMID:32709831
  1,248 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ocular surface characterization after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: A prospective study in a referral center
Carmen Alba-Linero, Marina Rodriguez Calvo de Mora, Rocío Lavado Valenzuela, María Jesús Pascual Cascón, Alejandra Rosario Martín Cerezo, Martina Álvarez Pérez, Luis Vicioso Recio, José Manuel Jerez Aragonés, José Manuel García Campos
August 2020, 68(8):1556-1562
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1865_19  PMID:32709775
Purpose: To characterize anatomical and functional changes in the ocular surface after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: Three groups of patients were included in the study. Group 1: patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (n = 26). Group 2: patients who developed chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) after HSCT (n = 14). Group 3: healthy subjects (n = 20). A complete ophthalmological examination was undertaken in all subjects, including Schirmer's test, TBUT (break-up-time) test, Oxford scale, OSDI test, corneal tomography, and conjunctival CD8+ lymphocyte detection. Results: In Branch 1 (comparative analysis before and after HSCT in Group 1), statistically significant differences were found in the following variables: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) OD (P = 0.08), OSDI test (P = 0.003), TBUT OU (OD P= 0, OS P= 0.0003), Oxford test OU (OD P= 0.01, OS P= 0.0049), and CD8+ lymphocytes OU (OD P= 0.003, OS P= 0.01). In Branch 2 (comparative analysis between Group 2 and 3), the variables with statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) in OU were: BCVA, OSDI test, Schirmer's test OU, TBUT test, Oxford test, and CD8+ lymphocytes. Finally, in Branch 3 (comparative analysis between Group 1 after HSCT and Group 2), statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) were found OU: in OSDI test, Schirmer's test, and Oxford test OU; and with P < 0.005 in TBUT test OU. Conclusion: In our study, statistically significant changes were observed in the OSDI test, TBUT test, Oxford Scale, and the detection of CD8+ lymphocytes in patients who underwent HSCT. Differences were more significant in those patients who had developed GvHD after HSCT compared to those without GvHD.
  1,187 148 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of visual acuity level on sexual function in patients with cataract
Veysel Cankurtaran, Serdar Ozates, Melike Ezerbolat Ozates, Serkan Ozler
August 2020, 68(8):1579-1583
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2290_19  PMID:32709781
Purpose: To assess the association of sexual function with visual acuity. Methods: Patients were included in the mild to moderate visual impairment (MVI), severe visual impairment (SVI), and profound visual impairment (PVI) groups based on bilateral corrected distance visual acuity. All patients completed the Turkish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) scales before and at 1 month after the cataract surgery. Results: Mean IIEF scores did not improve after cataract surgery in the MVI group (P > 0.05). Sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and total IIEF score were significantly improved after cataract surgery in both the SVI and PVI groups (P < 0.05). Mean GRISS subscale scores did not improve after cataract surgery in the MVI group (P > 0.05). Non-sensuality, avoidance, dissatisfaction, infrequency, noncommunication, and total GRISS score were significantly improved after cataract surgery in both the SVI and PVI groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results documented the association of low visual acuity and decreased sexual desire and satisfaction and revealed the beneficial effect of visual improvement.
  1,067 203 -
Clinical spectrum and management outcomes of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the orbit
Kirthi Koka, Md Shahid Alam, Nirmala Subramanian, Krishnakumar Subramanian, Jyotirmoy Biswas, Bipasha Mukherjee
August 2020, 68(8):1604-1608
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1375_19  PMID:32709787
Purpose: To describe the clinical spectrum and management outcomes of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the orbit. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with orbital LCH presenting at the Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India, over the past 15 years. Demographic details, presenting features, radiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and management outcomes were analyzed. Results: Nine patients were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 10.12 ± 14.31 years (range: 6 weeks to 35 years). Eyelid swelling was the most common presenting feature (4, 44.4%), followed by proptosis (3, 33.3%). The mean duration of the presentation was 2.21 ± 2.77 months. Radiological investigations revealed orbital roof osteolytic defects in six (66.6%) patients. Six patients underwent near-complete excision of the mass while three underwent incisional biopsy. Histopathology revealed histiocytes with nuclear grooving and numerous eosinophils characteristic of LCH. The cells were positive for CD1a and S 100 antigens. None of the patients had any systemic involvement. Three received systemic steroids and four received systemic chemotherapy. At a mean follow-up of 17.85 ± 23.46 months, all had complete remission without any signs of recurrence. One patient was lost to follow-up after near-complete excision while one adult patient with a mass in the intraconal space had no recurrence after near-complete excision. Conclusion: LCH is a rare disorder of the orbit that commonly occurs in children and should be considered a differential for osteolytic lesions involving the orbit. All patients should undergo a systemic evaluation to rule out multifocal disease. The treatment depends upon disease extent and risk factors.
  1,036 156 -
CASE REPORTS
Eye cancer in a young male with a vaping history
Carol L Shields, Min Kim, Sara E Lally, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Jerry A Shields
August 2020, 68(8):1699-1701
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_27_20  PMID:32709829
We report a new observation of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in a young man following years of electronic cigarette use. A 22-year-old man with a 5-year electronic cigarette use (vaping) developed painless unilateral blurred vision in the right eye from mild superficial corneal opacification, unresponsive to topical antiviral therapy. Corneal scraping documented no infectious etiology. The abnormality persisted for 1 year and superficial keratectomy revealed high-grade CIN with enlarged pleomorphic and dyskeratotic cells. Interferon-alpha-2b was instituted. In this case, chronic exposure to electronic cigarette vapors (vaping) could have been associated with CIN in this young patient.
  1,035 155 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The role of human immunodeficiency virus in the pathogenesis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis-like disease in adults: A demographic and epidemiological study
Anine Kritzinger, Anthony G Zaborowski, Wilbert Sibanda, Linda Visser
August 2020, 68(8):1551-1554
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1608_19  PMID:32709773
Purpose: The purpose was to identify and describe patients with new-onset vernal keratoconjunctivitis-like (VKC-like) disease after puberty. Methods: The study consisted of two parts: a prospective observational descriptive study of patients with new-onset VKC-like disease, and a case-control study to determine the relationship of a CD4 count with VKC-like disease in adults, in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients were recruited between January 2016 and November 2017 from a Provincial Eye hospital, one of two large referral hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Patients presenting to the eye clinic were screened and diagnosed at the Primary Eye Care Unit. Inclusion criteria: age 15 years and older with signs and symptoms of new-onset VKC-like disease. Exclusion criteria: a history of childhood atopic diseases, atopic keratoconjunctivitis and patients who declined HIV testing. Data collected included HIV status, CD4 count, antinuclear antibodies and total serum immunoglobulin E. Results: Thirty-three patients were included; females n = 16 and males n = 17. The mean age at presentation was 32.45 ± 9.93 years, 95% CI = 28.94–35.97. Twenty-six patients (78.8%) were HIV positive, 95% CI (62–89). The proportion of HIV positive patients was statistically different from the HIV negative group, Chi-squared = 21.866, P value <0.0001. In the group of HIV positive patients, 72% were classified as immunodeficient according to their CD4 counts. An association was proven between severely immunodeficient patients and the risk of VKC-like disease (Chi-squared = 4.992, P value = 0.0255). Conclusion: In this cohort, a statistically significant association was found between VKC-like disease in adults and an HIV positive status. This association calls for more research on the subject.
  954 174 -
Correction of preexisting astigmatism by penetrating arcuate keratotomy in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery
Kirti Rani, Ashok K Grover, Ashutosh K Singh, Tushar Grover, SP Garg
August 2020, 68(8):1569-1572
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2060_19  PMID:32709778
Purpose: To evaluate the astigmatism correcting effect of penetrating arcuate keratotomy (AK) done during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Methods: In this nonrandomized prospective study, 80 eyes of 70 patients were studied. The study included patients who underwent combined FLACS and AK, with corneal astigmatism ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 diopters (D). Femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating arcuate keratotomies were created at 8 mm optical zone at 80% depth and were centered at the limbus. Keratometric astigmatism was measured prior to and 3 months post-surgery. Vector analysis was performed using Power vector analysis method. Results: The mean preoperative keratometric astigmatism without accounting for axis was 0.85 ± 0.27 D, which reduced significantly to 0.47 ± 0.27 D at 3-month follow-up. The mean astigmatism correction attained without accounting for axis was 0.38 ± 0.32 D. The vector corrected mean preoperative astigmatism was 0.85 ± 0.27 D which reduced significantly to 0.50 ± 0.31 D postoperatively (P < 0.001, 95% CI). Vector corrected mean astigmatism correction attained was 0.35 ± 0.38 D. There were no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusion: Preexisting astigmatism can be tackled effectively with penetrating AK during FLACS although under correction is observed with present nomograms. Further refinements may achieve better correction.
  973 154 -
Evaluation of skills transfer in short-term phacoemulsification surgery training program by International Council of Ophthalmology -Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubrics (ICO-OSCAR) and assessment of efficacy of ICO-OSCAR for objective evaluation of skills transfer
Khurshed M Bharucha, Vivek G Adwe, Atul M Hegade, Rahul D Deshpande, Madan D Deshpande, V K S Kalyani
August 2020, 68(8):1573-1577
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2058_19  PMID:32709779
Purpose: To evaluate skills transfer in short-term phacoemulsification surgery training program by International Council of Ophthalmology -Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubrics (ICO-OSCAR) and assessment of efficacy of ICO-OSCAR for objective evaluation of skills transfer. Methods: Prospective analysis of total 1300 phacoemulsification surgeries performed by 52 phacoemulsification trainees divided into three groups based on the previous cataract surgical experience. The pretraining and posttraining average mean scores, independent completion rates (ICR), and complication rates among the groups were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Mean age of trainees (N = 52) was found to be 30.98 ± 2.44 years. Mean pretraining scores in the three groups were 42.8 ± 0.2, 46.6 ± 0.2, and 50.1 ± 0.1, respectively, and posttraining mean scores of the groups were 88.4 ± 0.2, 92.3 ± 0.2, and 94.3 ± 0.2, respectively, out of 100. Pretraining independent completion rates (%) were 22.1 ± 2.5, 52.1 ± 2.5, and 62 ± 3.7, respectively, and posttraining independent completion rates (%) were 74.8 ± 3, 79.7 ± 3, and 90.6 ± 3.5, respectively. Learning curves of all groups were noted to be steep. Rate of complications was within acceptable range, overall complication rate being 12.30% (160 out of 1300 cases). OSCAR scores correlate significantly (P = 0.0004) with ICR. Conclusion: Steep learning curve for phacoemulsification can be made easy by the use of standardized rubrics, proper techniques, expert guidance, and adequate surgical volume. The previous SICS experience provides smoother learning curve. ICO-OSCAR is indicator of proficiency and provides constructive feedback and objective evaluation immediately after surgery as well as at the end of training. Short-term (1 Month) training program is an effective, efficient, and safe approach to progressively master phacoemulsification skills for trainees with SICS experience.
  982 140 -
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES
Innovative intraocular lens loading magnified
Rengaraj Venkatesh, Bharat Gurnani, Kirandeep Kaur
August 2020, 68(8):1640-1642
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2217_19  PMID:32709797
Cataract surgery continues to evolve and advance in terms of new technology and improved techniques, offering a final result of better visual quality and faster visual recovery for our patients. Intraocular lens (IOL) delivery into the eye is a critical step in cataract surgery. Currently, eye surgeons load the IOL into the cartridge under the operating microscope or ophthalmic assistants load the IOL under their own direct vision. Because ophthalmic assistants load the IOL unaided, the IOL may be mishandled and lead to challenges such as IOL slippage, breakage, or incorrect orientation. In order to overcome these challenges and facilitate the surgical process, here we describe a novel technique by introducing a magnifier to the surgical table to aid ophthalmic assistants during this crucial step in cataract surgery. This not only saves time but also improves precision while loading IOL into the cartridge during cataract surgery.
  985 131 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Thyroid eye disease survey: An anonymous web-based survey in the Indian subcontinent
Anuradha Pradhan, Anasua Ganguly, Milind N Naik, Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Savari Desai, Suryasnata Rath
August 2020, 68(8):1609-1614
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1918_19  PMID:32709788
Purpose: To evaluate the current practice patterns in the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED) in Indian subcontinent through a web-based survey of members of Oculoplastics Association of India (OPAI). Methods: This was an online web-based questionnaire survey disseminated via monkeysurvey.com to all ratified active members of OPAI between May 1, 2016 and June 30, 2016. Questions encompassed the background, training, region, and experience of oculoplastic surgeons along with the management protocol of TED. Results: Of the 435 emails sent to OPAI members, 9 bounced and 180 (42.3%) responded within the study period. A large majority (96%) of respondents were oculoplastic surgeons practicing in India and the remaining practiced within South-East Asia. Two-thirds of respondents were oculoplastic surgeons with less than 10 years of clinical experience; 82% were fellowship trained in Oculoplasty. Almost all (99%) favored a multidisciplinary management of TED. A large majority routinely grade the severity (89%) and activity (87%) of disease before management. While corticosteroid remained the treatment of choice, 54% preferred immune-modulators as the second-line of therapy for recalcitrant TED. Three-quarters did not use orbital radiotherapy as a management modality in active TED owing to concerns over its efficacy and/or safety. Conclusion: The survey gives useful insights to the practice patterns of TED management in Indian subcontinent. Multidisciplinary approach and grading of disease severity and activity were the rule rather than exception among OPAI members. Immune modulation was the preferred steroid-sparing agent in recalcitrant disease. Orbital radiotherapy was an uncommon treatment choice.
  947 162 -
COMMENTARIES
Commentary: Thyroid eye disease in India: A wake-up call?
Bipasha Mukherjee
August 2020, 68(8):1614-1615
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_546_20  PMID:32709789
  938 122 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 7. Prevalence of refractive error in children in tribal Odisha (India) school screening
Lapam Panda, Suryasmita Nayak, Rohit C Khanna, Taraprasad Das
August 2020, 68(8):1596-1599
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2020_19  PMID:32709785
Purpose: To describe the prevalence of refractive error in school children in a tribal district, Rayagada, Odisha state, India. Methods: In a cross-sectional school eye health study, the students with diminished vision and other ocular abnormalities were referred for a further eye examination to the vision technicians after initial screening by the trained school teachers. The examination by vision technicians consisted of an external eye examination, photorefraction using a Spot screener and subjective correction. Those not improving with subjective correction were referred to the ophthalmologist for further examination. Results: The school teachers measured vision in 153,107 children; 5,990 students reached a vision technician. There was a near equal number of boys (50.06%) and girls (49.94%). The average age was 10.5 ± 2.63 (range: 5–15) years. The prevalence of refractive error was 9.7% (95% [CI]; 9.0–10.5%) in the vision technician-examined children. Myopia (4.9%) and astigmatism (5.4%) were more common than hyperopia (0.2%). The presenting visual acuity (PVA) was worse in children with hypermetropia (PVA 20/100-20/200 in 40% of children). Spherical equivalent of refractive error did not have a good correlation with age (R2 = 1.3); but increasing age was associated with increased risk of myopia (odds ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.09–1.20; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The quantum of refractive error was close to other similar studies in India but the prevalence of myopia was relatively less.
  902 128 -
Short-term outcome of botulinum neurotoxin A injection with or without sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of infantile esotropia—a prospective interventional study
Nitika Pandey, Siddharth Agrawal, Rajat M Srivastava, Vinita Singh
August 2020, 68(8):1600-1603
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1552_19  PMID:32709786
Purpose: To compare the short-term outcome of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) with or without sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of infantile esotropia (IE). Methods: In this tertiary care hospital-based prospective, interventional, non-randomized study on infants with IE below one year of age, 25 cases were enrolled in the sodium hyaluronate (SH) group to receive 2.5 U BoNT-A injection combined with SH in each medial rectus muscle (MR). Thirty patients were enrolled in the control group to receive 2.5 U BoNT-A injection with normal saline in each MR. The change in mean primary ocular deviation (POD) and complications were assessed at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post injection. Mann–Whitney U test was used for non-parametric unpaired data. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to test for the strength of the association between the two categorical variables. Results: Satisfactory ocular alignment was achieved in 76% in SH group and 73% in the control group (P value = 0.80). While the change in mean POD was comparable (29.2 prism diopters [PD] vs 29.3 PD; P value = 0.65), the complication rates were significantly lesser in SH (16% vs 33.3%; P value = 0.14). Conclusion: BoNT-A combined with SH is equally effective with lesser complications as compared to botulinum toxin alone in the treatment of IE.
  873 149 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Temporal iridofundal coloboma with persistent pupillary membranes with persistent fetal vasculature
Sukriti Gupta, Harinder S Sethi, Mayuresh Naik
August 2020, 68(8):1649-1650
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_188_20  PMID:32709803
  913 87 -
A rare case of symptomatic ocular pyogenic granuloma in pregnancy
Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Heba Thajudeen, Amar Agarwal
August 2020, 68(8):1645-1646
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2239_19  PMID:32709800
  881 109 -
Adverse drug reaction after intravitreal injection of topotecan
Subina Narang, Meenakshi Sindhu, Suman Kochhar, Awadesh K Pandey, Priya Goyal
August 2020, 68(8):1648-1649
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_327_19  PMID:32709802
  869 105 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessing the quality of life in Indian Graves' orbitopathy patients and validation of Hindi version of GO-QOL questionnaire
Kishan Delampady, Sagili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, Subhash B Yadav
August 2020, 68(8):1617-1621
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2183_19  PMID:32709791
Purpose: To validate the GO-specific quality of life (QOL) questionnaire in Hindi language and to determine the correlation of scores (visual functioning and appearance) with disease severity and activity. Methods: We recruited 114 consecutive patients with GO attending Endocrinology Clinic at tertiary care center. Eye examination was performed, and QOL was assessed by questionnaire. Results: The questionnaire was validated by 50 GO patients and test-retest reliability was performed in 15 patients. Hindi version GO-QOL was administered in 49 GO patients. GO was mild in 51.0% and sight-threatening in only 2.0% of cases. Orbitopathy was clinically active in only 10 (20.4%) cases. The GO-QOL scores (median) for visual function and appearance were 81.3 and 62.5, respectively. Patients with moderate-to-severe and sight-threatening GO had significantly lower median appearance scores (56.3 vs. 68.5, P= 0.01) compared to mild disease but no difference in visual scores. Patients with active disease had significant lower median visual function (53.1 vs. 85.7, P= 0.009) and psychosocial (appearance) scores (40.6 vs. 68.8, P= 0.03) compared to inactive disease. On multivariate regression analysis of GO-QOL scores, extraocular eye movement involvement (EOM), proptosis, and severity of eye disease were significantly associated with visual functioning while appearance was significantly associated only with the severity of eye disease. Conclusion: GO-QOL scores were significantly reduced in patients with GO.
  863 108 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Recurrent corneal erosion image by scanning electron microscopy
Jorge Peraza Nieves, Carlos Rocha de Lossada, Noelia Sabater Cruz, Josep Torras Sanvicens
August 2020, 68(8):1666-1666
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2282_19  PMID:32709814
  838 132 -
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES
Emulsion polymer isocyanate-gluing: Autologous epithelial transplant with cyanoacrylate glue application for small corneal perforations
Rahul K Bafna, Rinky Agarwal, Abhijeet Beniwal, Agam Bhandari, Namrata Sharma, Jeewan S Titiyal
August 2020, 68(8):1636-1639
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_69_20  PMID:32709796
Cyanoacrylate glue (CG) is a commonly employed modality for sealing small corneal perforations. Presently, we describe the technique of emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI)-gluing, a modification of its application, and its results in nine eyes with noninfectious, nontraumatic sterile corneal perforation with size ≤3 mm. The method involves harvesting a small patch of autologous epithelium adjacent to the melt area with the help of 10% alcohol and transplanting to the site of melt with its basement membrane facing downwards. CG, loaded on the reverse side of Sinskey hook or Weck-Cel sponge, is instilled on this epithelium-melt site complex and withdrawn immediately following which a bandage contact lens is placed on the corneal surface. In our series of patients with nine eyes where EPI-gluing was undertaken, all eyes reported a healed corneal scar with spontaneously dislodged glue and no underlying vascularization at 3-months follow-up. EPI-gluing is an inexpensive and host-friendly technique for the treatment of small noninfectious corneal perforations particularly with iris tissue prolapse.
  799 151 -
CASE REPORTS
Grease gun injury of the orbit: A rare case report
Chandana Chakraborti, Ajoy Kumar Saha
August 2020, 68(8):1701-1703
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2281_19  PMID:32709830
We report a case of intraconal grease gun injury along with traumatic optic neuropathy in a 20-year-old male. He presented with dimness of vision and proptosis of the left eye (LE) following an accidental injury at work place. The computer tomography of orbit revealed hypodense grease orbit. Cream colored grease was continually exuding from the conjunctival wound. Patient improved rapidly after the surgical removal of the grease by anterior orbitotomy. Grease gun injuries to the orbit have rarely been reported. The present case is the eighth report throughout the world, and the first in India as per our knowledge.
  852 82 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anterior segment alterations in congenital primary aphakia—a clinicopathologic report of five cases
Sunita Chaurasia, Saumya Jakati, Muralidhar Ramappa, Dilip K Mishra, Deepak P Edward
August 2020, 68(8):1564-1568
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2078_19  PMID:32709777
Purpose: To report the clinicopathological features of corneal buttons in patients with congenital primary aphakia. Methods: Five corneal specimens of five patients with congenital primary aphakia who underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) were studied by light microscopy, and immunohistochemistry with anti-smooth muscle (SMA) antibody. Results: All patients were born from consanguineous parents. Of the five, two patients were identical twins. All eyes were microphthalmic. In four patients, congenital primary aphakia was bilateral and in one patient (Patient 3), it was unilateral. PKP failed in all eyes due to hypotony. Histologically, Bowman's layer was absent in all specimens. The corneal stroma was thin; however, the stromal collagen showed thick and irregularly arranged fibers with neovascularization in all eyes. Descemet's membrane and the corneal endothelium were absent in all specimens. In three specimens, atrophic iris tissue without dilator muscle was adherent to the posterior corneal surface. In addition, anteriorly displaced hypoplastic ciliary body and/or pigmented and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium were attached to the posterior corneal surface in three of the five specimens. SMA staining demonstrated disorganized ciliary muscle in one case. SMA-positive stromal keratocytes demonstrated their myofibroblast nature. Conclusion: The corneal findings in congenital primary aphakia are similar to that seen in other causes of congenital corneal opacification. The anteriorly displaced hypoplastic ciliary body that was partially excised during keratoplasty explains the ocular hypotony in these eyes.
  775 158 -
CASE REPORTS
Acute interface infectious keratitis with multidrug resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia Coli following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty
Soham Basak, Samar K Basak, Suman Saha
August 2020, 68(8):1678-1680
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2348_19  PMID:32709821
Acute interface infectious keratitis (AIIK) is a rare and devastating complication following lamellar keratoplasty. Here, we report a case of AIIK following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) caused by double gram-negative bacilli and required urgent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK). Microbiology revealed co-infection with Klebsiella and E. Coli sensitive only to colistin. Donor rim culture also grew Klebsiella. TPK was successful in controlling the infection and the patient responded to topical fortified amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Since optical quality tissue was used, the patient regained 20/40 vision postoperatively. This report highlights that immediate TPK and intense antimicrobial therapy can salvage these eyes with good visual outcome.
  822 106 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis spectrum in two generations of a family
Garima Singh, Umang Mathur, Virender S Sangwan
August 2020, 68(8):1644-1645
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1716_19  PMID:32709799
  805 117 -
CASE REPORTS
Atypical optic neuritis as the presenting feature of testicular malignancy: Rare case report with review of literature
Anju Meena, Harinder S Sethi, Mukesh Joshi, Mayuresh Naik
August 2020, 68(8):1696-1698
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2256_19  PMID:32709828
A 23-year-old male presented with unilateral acute onset, painless, progressive diminution of vision. Initial clinical and radiological findings were consistent with optic neuritis. The patient was started on pulse steroids leading to visual recovery. However, the patient relapsed within one week. Repeat imaging revealed metastatic lesions near the orbital apex. Orbit is an unusual site of metastasis from testicular tumors and only 3 cases of testicular synovial sarcoma with orbital metastasis have been reported. A thorough systemic evaluation should be done in cases of atypical and relapsing optic neuritis to rule out the causes of optic neuritis (ON) masquerade syndrome.
  805 102 -
Retinal neovascularization in a patient with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy
Vinod K Aggarwal, Pulak Agarwal, Shoryavardhan Azad
August 2020, 68(8):1693-1695
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2068_19  PMID:32709827
A 45-year-old male presented with diminution of vision in both eyes since the last 2 years. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in his right eye and 20/600 in left eye. BE fundi had changes of chronic CSCR with PED and NSD in the RE and subretinal fibrosis in the left eye. Both eyes had peripheral pigmentary changes. Multimodal imaging showed peripheral avascular retina in both eyes with neovascularization at disc in the right eye which promptly resolved with a single injection of anti-VEGF. Retinal neovascularization is an unusual finding in the setting of CSCR and has not been reported in the literature.
  791 103 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Endophthalmitis with opaque cornea managed with primary endoscopic vitrectomy and secondary keratoplasty: Presentations and outcomes
Vivek P Dave, Rajeev R Pappuru, Mohammad A Khader, Sayan Basu, Mudit Tyagi, Avinash Pathengay
August 2020, 68(8):1587-1592
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1840_19  PMID:32709783
Purpose: To describe the outcomes of endophthalmitis with opaque cornea managed with primary endoscopic vitrectomy and secondary keratoplasty. Methods: Retrospective consecutive interventional case series. All cases of endophthalmitis with opaque cornea which underwent endoscopic vitrectomy followed by secondary keratoplasty were analyzed. The study period was from Jan 2015 to March 2019. The outcome measures were resolution of infection, the magnitude of unnecessary keratoplasties avoided and corneal graft survival. The final anatomic and functional outcomes were reported and compared with relevant literature. Results: Seventy-eight eyes of 78 patients underwent endoscopic pars plana vitrectomy for endophthalmitis with the opaque cornea, of these 14 eyes of 14 patients were deemed eligible for further corneal intervention and were included in the study. The mean age at presentation was 42.27 ± 21.6 years (median 36 years). Etiology-wise, eight cases (57.14%) were post-trauma, three cases (21.42%) post-keratoplasty, two cases (14.28%) were endogenous, and one case (7.14%) following corneal dermoid excision and wound melt. Culture positivity was in 5/14 (35.71%). The mean interval between endoscopic vitrectomy and keratoplasty was 5.42 ± 2.69 months (median 3.5 months). The mean follow-up noted was 20.42 ± 11.45 months (median 17.5 months). The infection resolved in 100% of cases. Unnecessary keratoplasties were avoided in 64/78 (82%) cases due to the primary endoscopic intervention. The favorable anatomic outcome was seen in 11/14 (78.57%) of cases and favorable functional outcome in 8/14 (57.14%) cases. Conclusion: Endoscopic vitrectomy allows for early intervention in endophthalmitis with the opaque cornea. This facilitates early settlement of infection, globe preservation, greater graft survival, and lesser repeat posterior segment procedures.
  752 139 -
Eyelid retraction discomfort with cotton-tipped applicator, unimanual and speculum intravitreal injection techniques: Eyelid retraction technique randomized comparison trial (Eyelid RETRACT)
Joseph J Raevis, Matthew D Karl, Anthony M Parendo, Konstantin Astafurov, Andrew G Dugue, Steven A Agemy, Allison E Rizzuti, Joseph Tseng, Wayne Scott, Katelin Reaney-Perrotti, John Laudi, Eric M Shrier
August 2020, 68(8):1593-1595
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2043_19  PMID:32709784
Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the discomfort experienced during intravitreal injections with eyelid retraction between an eyelid speculum, cotton-tipped applicator (CTA), and unimanual eyelid retraction techniques. Methods: In total, 99 patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab were enrolled into this prospective study. Participants were randomized to one of the three methods, given subconjunctival 2% lidocaine and then injected in the superior temporal quadrant. Immediately after the procedure, each patient was given a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate their discomfort. Results: The mean pain scores for eyelid retraction with unimanual, CTA, and speculum groups were 0.788 (standard deviation [SD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.448–1.128), 0.945 (SD 1.28, 95% CI 0.600–1.291), and 1.561 (SD 1.28, 95% CI 1.210–1.912), respectively. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.006). Post hoc analysis also revealed a difference in mean pain scores between the speculum and both the CTA and the unimanual methods. Conclusion: Our study shows that the unimanual and CTA methods for eyelid retraction are significantly less painful for patients compared to the speculum method. Patient comfort is of the utmost importance as intravitreal injections are performed millions of times a year with most patients requiring multiple injections.
  771 101 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Role of an ophthalmologist after patient loses vision- are we doing enough?
Javed Hussain Farooqui, Umang Mathur, Ashish Saksena
August 2020, 68(8):1715-1719
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2356_19  PMID:32709837
  764 95 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Simultaneous choroidal and conjunctival metastases from renal cell carcinoma
An-Ning Chao, Bayardo Perez-Ordonez, Mostafa Hanout, Kalpana Rose, Hatem Krema
August 2020, 68(8):1652-1654
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2158_19  PMID:32709805
  763 89 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Rice granule epicapsular stars
Pasyanthi Balijepalli, Arjun Srirampur, Aruna K Gadde
August 2020, 68(8):1667-1667
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2406_19  PMID:32709815
  760 85 -
Contact lens warpage: Lost but found
Josephine Christy, Bharat Gurnani, Kirandeep Kaur, Fredrick Moutappa
August 2020, 68(8):1662-1662
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2034_19  PMID:32709811
  738 107 -
PHOTO ESSAY
An eye behind an eye: A rare association of bilateral optic disc coloboma with retrobulbar cyst
Lavanya G Shankar, Anjali Khadia, Keerthi Gayam, S Priya, Fredrick Moutappa
August 2020, 68(8):1656-1657
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1957_19  PMID:32709807
  737 105 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGE
Using smartphone flashlight as slit lamp light source
Ta C Chang, Matteo Ziff
August 2020, 68(8):1658-1659
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2335_19  PMID:32709808
  697 142 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Disfiguring periocular yellow nodules in a normolipemic patient
Divya Kamat, Manoj Gopal Madakshira, Sunil Dogra
August 2020, 68(8):1643-1644
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2301_19  PMID:32709798
  721 115 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary: Thyroid eye disease—does the profile differ in India?
Ashok Kumar Grover
August 2020, 68(8):1635-1635
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2274_20  PMID:32709795
  731 93 -
CASE REPORTS
Progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy associated with chorioretinal microvascular embolism after intranasal injection of a corticosteroid suspension
Daisuke Nagasato, Naohiro Ikeda, Akiko Masuda, Ryosuke Kashimoto, Tomohiro Ikeda
August 2020, 68(8):1686-1687
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2332_19  PMID:32709824
A patient with glaucoma developed sudden blurred vision immediately after the nasal mucosal injection of a betamethasone acetate solution into the inferior turbinate. The fundus examination revealed several white emboli in the choroidal vessels of the temporal region of the optic disc. After vigorous massage, her visual acuity recovered from counting fingers to 20/32. Six days after the initial examination, Goldmann perimetry showed expansion of the superior and inferior arcuate scotomas. In this case, temporary ischemia of the central retinal and short posterior ciliary arteries involving the arterial circle of Zinn–Haller led to the deterioration of the preexisting glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
  724 94 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Human corneo-conjunctival limbus anatomy assessed by scanning electron microscopy
Jorge Peraza Nieves, Carlos Rocha de Lossada, Noelia Sabater Cruz, Josep Torras Sanvicens
August 2020, 68(8):1665-1665
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2205_19  PMID:32709813
  716 99 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Myopic retinoschisis with intraretinal emulsified silicone oil appearing as a macular hyperoleon
Ike M Schouten, Amit H Palkar, Muna Bhende
August 2020, 68(8):1651-1652
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2402_19  PMID:32709804
  696 106 -
CASE REPORTS
Uveoscleral metastasis in laryngeal carcinoma
Sumeet T Lahane, Tatyarao P Lahane, Nikita Harwani, Ragini Parekh
August 2020, 68(8):1681-1683
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2074_19  PMID:32709822
Ocular metastatic lesions from head to neck region are rare. 55 years old male patient presented with loss of vision, pain, and proptosis of the left eye. The patient was known case of laryngeal squamous carcinoma underwent laryngectomy 1 and half years back followed by chemoradiation. Well-defined scleral nodule extending from limbus to optic nerve was noted. In view of no other metastatic focus other than left eye on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, left eye enucleation was performed. Histopathological examination (HPE) showed squamous cell carcinoma. The patient received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for left eye orbit. This is the first well-documented proven case of uveoscleral metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma.
  692 105 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary: Adult-onset vernal keratoconjunctivitis-like disease in human immunodeficiency virus
Manpreet Kaur, Nithya Bhai, Jeewan S Titiyal
August 2020, 68(8):1554-1555
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1014_20  PMID:32709774
  688 106 -
CASE REPORTS
Detection of retinal laser injury using confocal scanning laser imaging
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Rupak K Biswas, Lav Kochgaway, Sourav Sinha, Krishnendu Nandi, Swakshyar Saumya Pal, Maharshi Miatra
August 2020, 68(8):1688-1691
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_54_20  PMID:32709825
The use of laser energy in medical practice requires specific safety measures. Accidental ocular exposure of laser can have vision-threatening consequences. We report a case of accidental laser exposure in a dentist who was working with a diode laser. The patient presented within 24 hours of exposure and the clinical fundus examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) were unremarkable at this time. Blue light autofluorescence (BAF) and multicolor images obtained using the Spectralis SDOCT system revealed the laser impact site. The multicolor image showed a larger extent of retinal involvement highlighting its role in imaging.
  684 89 -
PHOTO ESSAY
A rare case of intraocular communicating cysticercosis
R S Keerthhi Dhevi, V Anusha, M Prabhu Shanker, G Geetha
August 2020, 68(8):1654-1655
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1939_19  PMID:32709806
  679 93 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Corneal ulcer and germinated paddy seed in the superior fornix
Soham Basak, Samar K Basak
August 2020, 68(8):1661-1661
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2386_19  PMID:32709810
  646 122 -
CASE REPORTS
Comparing in-vivo confocal microscopy and ex-vivo light and scanning electron microscopy images of the hairs of the pine processionary caterpillar embedded in the cornea: Report of three cases
Francisco Pérez-Bartolomé, Jorge Peraza-Nieves, JI Fernández-Vigo, Rosalía Méndez-Fernández, Julio Gonzalez Martín-Moro, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos
August 2020, 68(8):1672-1675
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1735_19  PMID:32709819
This report describes three cases of pine processionary caterpillar hairs (setae) embedded in the cornea: one in a 69-year-old man with acute keratouveitis, a second case in a 65-year-old man with an epithelial defect and a stromal infiltrate, and the third case affecting a 54-year-old woman with mild keratitis. The two first patients had one hair embedded in the anterior corneal layers while the last one had several hairs deeply embedded in the stroma. By comparing in-vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) with ex-vivo light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the morphology of the setae was identified and confirmed.
  711 53 -
Recurrent cystoid macular edema following Boston keratoprosthesis type-II implantation: A treatment option
Samar K Basak, Soham Basak
August 2020, 68(8):1691-1693
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2322_19  PMID:32709826
A 68-year-old woman with end-stage Stevens–Johnson syndrome developed cystoid macular edema (CME) 3 months following Boston keratoprosthesis type II (KPro-II) implantation and treated with single-dose injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in the inferior peribulbar region. After 14 days, CME resolved completely, and she regained 20/30 vision. Seven months later, she developed recurrent CME. She was again treated with a similar peribulbar injection of TA. CME was resolved completely after 2 weeks with full visual and anatomical recovery. Here, we present a case of recurrent CME following KPro-II implantation responsive to peribulbar injection of TA, which may be the only effective treatment option.
  675 87 -
COMMENTARIES
Commentary: Multidisciplinary team approach to tackle thyroid eye disease
Lakshmi Mahesh
August 2020, 68(8):1615-1616
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2202_20  PMID:32709790
  673 88 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Multimodal imaging in paraproteinemic keratopathy
Neel D Pasricha, Michele D Lee, Gerami D Seitzman
August 2020, 68(8):1663-1664
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2029_19  PMID:32709812
  629 111 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary: In case of emergency, Dr MacGyver uses Jugaad illumination
John D Akkara, Anju Kuriakose
August 2020, 68(8):1660-1660
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_531_20  PMID:32709809
  655 82 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Ischemic macular hole in central retinal artery occlusion
Parveen Sen, Harshit Vaidya, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Prashant K Bawankule, Shilpi H Narnaware
August 2020, 68(8):1670-1671
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_67_20  PMID:32709818
  599 129 -
PHOTO ESSAY
Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided assessment of hydro-dissection procedure during cataract surgery
Saumya Yadav, Ritika Mukhija, Amar Pujari, Radhika Tandon
August 2020, 68(8):1647-1648
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2255_19  PMID:32709801
  637 90 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Ultra-widefield noncontact imaging of bilateral congenital retinal fold
Debdulal Chakraborty, Dipankar Das
August 2020, 68(8):1668-1668
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2305_19  PMID:32709816
  617 86 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary: Ocular surface involvement heralds graft-versus-host disease: Time to act
Purvasha Narang, Sayan Basu
August 2020, 68(8):1562-1563
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_483_20  PMID:32709776
  597 100 -
Commentary: Risk factors predicting visual morbidity in thyroid eye disease
Suryasnata Rath
August 2020, 68(8):1627-1628
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1851_20  PMID:32709793
  591 95 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
The submerged part of the iceberg that sank the unsinkable – the hidden psychosocial aspect of the pandemic
Isha Chaudhari, Arpan Gandhi, Umang Mathur
August 2020, 68(8):1707-1709
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2105_20  PMID:32709832
  595 84 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary: Tools for standardization of skills transfer
Kamaljeet Singh
August 2020, 68(8):1577-1578
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_358_20  PMID:32709780
  581 91 -
OPHTHALMIC IMAGES
Ultra-widefield image of choroidal detachment after combined glaucoma filtration surgery
Vijayalakshmi A Senthilkumar, Chitaranjan Mishra
August 2020, 68(8):1669-1669
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_2092_19  PMID:32709817
  557 72 -